• Saad S. Dahham
  • Chaw Sen Hew
  • Ibrahim Jaafar
  • Lay-harn Gam School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia


Bufo asper, skin secretion, anitmicrobial, proteomics


Objective: The skin secretions of toads are a rich source of bioactive peptides and proteins, which offer a wide range of therapeutic application. The current study was designed to elucidate the antimicrobial activity of Bufo asper skin secretions.

Methods: Proteomic analysis of electrically stimulated skin secretions were mapped using SDS-PAGE followed by LC-MS/MS. In total,>50 proteins were identified with a molecular weight ranging from 20 to 250 KDa. The antimicrobial activity was performed by an agar-well diffusion method to measure the diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) as well as microdilution technique to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).

Results: Toad's skin secretion (TSS) exhibited broad spectrum growth inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; with more pronounce activity towards Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, with MIC 12.25±0.4 and 25±1.3 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the proteomic profile of Bufo asper skin secretion has revealed the presence of interesting proteins such as, actin, histone H4 and heat shock proteins (HSP90, HSP70 and HSC70).

Conclusion: we anticipate that the collective functions of proteins and peptides with a wide range of diversity may contribute to the TSS antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Bufo asper, Skin secretion, Antimicrobial, Proteomics.


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How to Cite

Dahham, S. S., C. S. Hew, I. Jaafar, and L.- harn Gam. “THE PROTEIN PROFILING OF ASIAN GIANT TOAD SKIN SECRETIONS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 6, June 2016, pp. 88-95,



Original Article(s)