HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CAESALPENIA BONDUC AGAINST CCL4 INDUCED CHRONIC HEPATOTOXICITY
Keywords:Caesalpenia bonduc, liver, chronic, CCl4, Fibrosis
Objective: The leaves of Caesalpinia bonduc (CB) have been used against various disorders in folk medicine including the liver disorders. Earlier, we have shown the hepatoprotective effect of CB in acute hepatotoxicity model. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-hepatotoxic and anti-fibrotic effect of the aqueous leaf extract of CB on CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride) induced chronic hepatotoxicity/fibrosis in Wistar rats.
Methods: Animals were divided into three groups namely; preventive, curative and prophylactic, which was further subdivided into four groups each: Group Iâ€“untreated control, group II-CCl4 control, group III-CB+CCl4 and group IVâ€“silymarin+CCl4. The aqueous extract of CB/silymarin was administered orally once, daily for eight weeks in the curative group and for four weeks in preventive and prophylactic groups respectively. The chronic liver damage/fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 twice a week, for four weeks in preventive and prophylactic groups and for eight weeks in the curative group. Blood samples were collected for assaying serum biochemical parameters, and the livers were excised and processed for histology.
Results: The data showed that supplementation of aqueous leaf extract of CB along with CCl4 significantly reduced the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase(ALP), total bilirubin(TB) and prothrombin time(PT) thus further restoring the total protein(TP) and albumin(ALB) in preventive, curative and prophylactic groups when compared to CCl4 control. Significant improvement in the microscopic structure of the liver further confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of CB over the liver injury and fibrosis induced by CCl4 in rats.
Conclusion: The study, therefore, suggests that aqueous extract of CB might provide a novel and alternative approach for treating the chronic hepatotoxicity/liver fibrosis.
Keywords: Caesalpenia bonduc, Liver, Chronic, CCl4, Fibrosis, Silymarin, Hepato-protection
Lee WM. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity. N Engl J Med 2003;349:474-81.
Liu SQ, Yu JP, Chen HL, Luo HS, Chen SM, Yu HG. Therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms of Ginkgo biloba Extract on liver fibrosis in rats. Am J Chin Med 2006;34:99â€“114.
Chen WX, Li YM, Yu CH, Cai WM, Zheng M, Chen F. Quantitative analysis of transforming growth factor beta 1 mRNA in patients with the alcoholic liver disease. World J Gastroenterol 2002;8:379â€“81.
Bataller R, Brenner DA. Liver fibrosis. J Clin Invest 2005;115:209â€“18.
Gebhardt R. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in HepG2 cells by artichoke extracts is reinforced by glucosidase pretreatment. Phytotherapy 2002;16:368â€“72.
Suhani SD, Pai KSR, Nitesh K, Kumar MR Bhat. Hepatoprotective role of Caesalpenia bonduc: a histopathological and biochemical study. J Clin Diagn Res 2014;8:5-7.
Sreejayan N, Rao MNA. Free radical scavenging activity by curcuminoids. Drug Res 1996;46:169â€71.
Prasanth Kumar V, Shasidhara S, Kumar MM, Sridhara BY. Effect of Luffa echinata on lipid peroxidation and free radical scavenging activity. J Pharm Pharmacol 2000;52:891â€4.
Ghosh MN, Sheridan PJ. Fundamentals of experimental pharmacology. 2nd Ed. Calcutta: Scientific Book Agency; 1984. p. 669â€“71.
Hyo-Sun Choi, Jung-Woo Kang, Sun-Mee Lee. Melatonin attenuates carbon tetrachlorideâ€“induced liver fibrosis via inhibition of necroptosis. Transl Res 2015;166:292â€“303.
Jones ML. Connective tissues and stains. In: Theory and practice of histological techniques. Bancroft JD, Gamble M. 5th Ed. Churchill Livingstone: Harcourt Publishers Limited, Edinburgh; 2002. p. 139-62.
Friedman LS, Martin P, Minoz SJ. Laboratory evaluation of the patient with liver disease. In: Zakim D, Boyer TD. editors. Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease. 4th ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 2003. p. 661â€“708.
Tsukada S, Parsons CJ, Rippe RA. Mechanisms of liver fibrosis. Clin Chim Acta 2006;364:33-60.
Pierce RA, Glaug MR, Greco RS, Mackenzie JW, Boyd CD, Deak SB. Increased procollagen mRNA levels in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats. J Biol Chem 1987;262:1652â€“8.
Bissell DH, Friedman SL, Maher JJ, Roll FJ. Connective tissue biology and hepatic fibrosis: report of a conference. Hepatology 1990;11:488â€“98.
Desmet VJ. Fibrosis of the liver: a pathologistâ€™s view. In: Surrenti C, Casini A, Milani S, Panzani M. editors. Proceedings of the 71st Falk Symposium, Fat Storing Cells and Liver Fibrosis, 13 July 1993, Florence, Italy. Lancaster: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1994. p. 257â€73.
Khan MR, Rizvi W, Khan GN, Khan RA, Shaheen S. Carbon tetrachloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats: protective role of Digera muricata. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;122:91â€“9.
Boyer TD. Diagnosis and management of cirrhotic ascites. In: Zakim D, Boyer TD. editors. Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease. 4th ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 2003. p. 631â€“58.
Kumar RS, Kumar KA, Murthy NV. Hepato protective and antioxidant effects of Caesalpinia bonducella on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats. Indian Res J Pharm Sci 2010;1:62-8.