• Devesh Kumar Kushawaha
  • Manjulika Yadav
  • Sanjukta Chatterji
  • Gulab Singh Maurya
  • Awadhesh Kumar Rai
  • Geeta Watal 1Alternative Therapeutics Unit, Drug, Development Division, Medicinal Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, U. P., India


Reactive oxygen species, Cucurbita maxima, elemental analysis, laser spectroscopy


Objective: To assess the free radical scavenging index and antioxidant capacity of C. maxima (Cucurbita maxima) seed extract in vitro and its correlation with the phytoelemental profile, quantitatively assessed by LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy).

Methods: A number of in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging assays were performed along with standard as a reference. Reduction capacity and scavenging potential of C. maxima seeds were analyzed in addition to their IC50 values and were compared with respective standards. Quantitative measurements of phytoelements present which is responsible for antioxidant activity is carried out by LIBS.

Results: Significant Antioxidant power of the extract was validated by high values of Total Phenolics (18.42 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent) and Total Flavonoids (5.53 mg/g of quercetin equivalent). A result of Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (163.4 μM Fe+2/g) clearly reflects its reduction capacity. Percentage inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (69.25), Nitric Oxide (63.63) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (62.09) radicals proves its antioxidant potential undoubtedly, which was further confirmed by their IC50 values. Reducing power was found to increase significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Extent lipid peroxidation was also measured by comparing the results of Ferric thiocyanate assay with the Thiobarbituric acid method. LIBS analysis showed the presence of certain phytoelements viz. Mg, Ca and Na in the extract, which could be responsible for its antioxidant capacity.

Conclusion: Thus, the seeds of C. maxima having a combination of antioxidant phytochemicals and phytoelements could be explored for developing as a complementary and alternative medicine for managing oxidative stress including diabetes as well as aging.

Keywords: Reactive oxygen species, Cucurbita maxima, Elemental analysis, Laser spectroscopy


Download data is not yet available.


Cheung LM, Cheung PCK, Ooi VEC. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics of edible mushroom extracts. Food Chem 2003;81:249-55.

Inganakal TS, Swamy PL. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of a triterepne isolated from Madhuca longifolia leaves. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:389-91.

Saeed N, Khan MR, Shabbir M. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilis leptohhylla L. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2012;12:1-12.

Rai PK, Chatterji S, Rai NK, Bicanic D, Rai AK, Watal G. The glycemic elemental profile of Trichosanthes dioica: A LIBS-based study. Food Biophys 2010;5:17-23.

Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. Dehradun: Oriental Enterprises; 2003. p. 1606-8.

Shaheen SJAA, Kaskoos RA, Hamad KJ, Ahamad J. In-vitro antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition activity of Cucurbita maxima. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2013;2:121-4.

Saha P, Mazumder UK, Haldar PK. In vitro antioxidant activity of Cucurbita maxima aerial parts. Free Radicals Antioxid 2011;1:42-8.

Wolfe K, Wu X, Liu RH. Antioxidant activity of apple peels. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:609-14.

Ordonez AAL, Gomez JD, Vattuone M, Isla MI. Antioxidant activities of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swart extracts. Food Chem 2006;97:452-8.

Oyaizu M. Studies on products of browning reaction. Antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn J Nutr Diet 1986;44:307-15.

Benzie IFF, Strain JJ. Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 1996;239:70-6.

Kikuzaki H, Nakatani N. Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents. J Food Sci 1993;58:1407-10.

Liyana-Pathiranan CM, Shahidi F. Antioxidant activity of commercial soft and hard wheat (Triticum aestivum L) as affected by gastric pH conditions. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:2433-40.

Green LC, Wanger DA, Glogowski J, Skipper PL, Wishnok JS, Tannenbaum SR. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, [15 N] nitrate in biological fluids. Anal Biochem 1981;126:131-8.

Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biol Med 1999;26:1231-7.

Heim KE, Tagliaferro AR, Bobilya DJ. Flavonoid antioxidant: chemistry, metabolism and structure activity relationship. J Nutr Biochem 2002;13:572-84.

Duh PD. Antioxidant activity of burdock (Arctium lappa Linne): its scavenging effect on free radical and active oxygen. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1998;75:455-61.

Gordon MH. The mechanism of antioxidant action in vitro. London: Elsevier Applied Science; 1990. p. 1-18.

Adeolu A, Adedapo FO, Jimoh A, Afolayan J, Patrick JM. Antioxidant properties of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Celtis africana (Rec.). Nat Prod 2009;3:23-31.

Gupta AD, Pundeer V, Bande G, Dhar S, Ranganath IR, Kumari GS. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of four folk antiâ€diabetic medicinal plants of India. Pharmacology 2009;1:200-8.

Naphade S, Khadabadi SS, Deore SL, Jagtap NS, Hadke SP. Antioxidant activity of different extracts of Planttricholepis glaberrima dc (Asteraceae). Int J PharmTech Res 2009;1:502-5.

Rezaeizadeh A, Zuki ABZ, Abdollahi M, Goh YM, Noordin MM, Hamid M, et al. Determination of antioxidant activity in methanolic and cloroformic extract of Momordica charantia. Afr J Biotechnol 2011;10:4932-40.

Farag RS, Badei AZMA, Hawed FM, Elâ€Baroty GSA. Antioxidant activity of some spice essential oils on linoleic acid oxidation in aqueous media. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1989;66:793-9.

Hagerman AE, Riedl KM, Jones GA, Sovik KN, Ritchard NT, Hartzfeld PW, et al. High molecular weight plant polyphenolics (tannins) as biological antioxidants. Agric J Food Chem 1998;46:1887-92.

Omaye KA, Reddy, Cross CE. Enhanced lung. Dystrophy in vitamin-e deficient rabbits. J Biol Chem 1962;237:916-21.

Mayes PA. Structure and function of the water soluble vitamins. Harper’s Biochemistry. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2000. p. 1-4.

Soetan KO, Olaiya CO, Oyewole OE. The importance of mineral elements for humans, domestic animals and plants: a review. Afr J Food Sci 2010;4:200-22.

Hasling C, Sondergard K, Charles P, Moselkiloe L. Calcium metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporotic woman is determined by dietary calcium and coffee intake. J Nutr 1991;23:1119-26.

Scelig M. Cardiovascular consequences of Mg deficiency and loss; pathogenesis, prevalence and manifestations. Am J Cardiol 1989;63:1101-2.

Hays VW, Swenson MJ. Minerals and Bones. New York: Cornell University Press; 1985. p. 449-66.

Saupi N, Zakira MH, Bujang JS. Analytic chemical composition and mineral content of yellow velvet leaf (Limnocharis flava L. Buchenau). J Appl Sci 2009;9:2969-74.

Mertz W. The essential trace elements. Science 1981; 213:1332-8.

Konczak I, Roulle P. Nutritional properties of commercially grown native Australian fruits: lipophilic antioxidants and minerals. Food Res Int 2011;44:2339-44.

Evans P, Halliwell B. Micronutrients: Oxidant/antioxidant status. Br J Nutr 2001;85:S67-S74.

Barros HRM, Ferreira TAPC, Genovese MI. Antioxidant capacity and mineral content of pulp and peel from commercial cultivars of citrus from Brazil. Food Chem 2012;134:1892-8.



How to Cite

Kushawaha, D. K., M. Yadav, S. Chatterji, G. S. Maurya, A. K. Rai, and G. Watal. “FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING INDEX OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA SEEDS AND THEIR LIBS BASED ANTIOXIDANT ELEMENTAL PROFILE”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 4, Apr. 2016, pp. 344-50,



Original Article(s)