BIOACTIVE POTENTIAL OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS (SS03) AGAINST CLINICAL ISOLATES
Objective: This study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi isolated from the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam. collected from the Omalur region, Salem district.
Methods: The endophytic fungi were isolated from stem, leaves, flowers and calyx of Moringa oleifera by surface sterilization method. The samples were surface sterilized by immersing it in 70% ethanol for 5 seconds followed by 4% sodium hypochlorite for 90 seconds and then a final rinsing in sterile distilled water. Then fungal biomass was extracted for intracellular metabolites by using ethyl acetate as solvent. The crude extract was filtered, and the filtrate was dried under vacuum at 40 Â°C. The filtrate was analyzed for antimicrobial activity. The fungi which showed the maximum activity was identified and the metabolite present in the ethyl acetate extract was characterized and identified by GC-MS and NMR analysis.
Results: The predominant endophytic fungi isolated belongs to the genera of Aspergillus spp, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus terreus and dematiaceous fungi namely Bipolaris spp. From this Aspergillus flavus showed the highest zone of inhibition was observed against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus 22 mm and strain of Candida tropicalis 19 mm. The efficiency of the bioactive compound was identified by GC-MS and NMR analysis and found to be Fenaclon, (R)(-) 14 methyl-8-hexadecyn-1-ol, Trans-Î²-farnesene (E)-Î²-farnesene, 9-Octcadecene,1,1, Dimethoxy
Conclusion: This study results indicate that the bioactive metabolites produce the endophytic fungi Aspergillus flavus could be promising source as antimicrobial agents.
2. Rezwana Khan, Saleem Shahzad, M Iqbal Choudhary, Shakeel, A Khan, Aqeel Ahmad. Communities of endophytic fungi in medicinal plant withania somnifera. Pak J Bot 2010;42:1281-7.
3. Hua Wei Zhang, Yong Chun Song, Ren Xiang Tan. Biology and chemistry of endophytes. Nat Proc Rep 2006;23:753-71.
4. VH Sunitha, D Nirmala Devi, C Srinivas. The extracellular enzymatic activity of endophytic fungal strains isolated from medicinal plants. World J Agric Sci 2013;9:1-9.
5. John Barnabas, Sushma S Murthy, Jagdeesh. Antimicrobial properties of endophytic fungi isolated from cynodon dactylon and moringa oliefera. Int J Biol Pharm Res 2013;4:98-104.
6. Souwalak Phongpaichit, Nattawut Rungjindamai, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Jariya Sakayaroj. Antimicrobial activity in cultures of endophytic fungi isolated from Garcinia species. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2006;48:367â€“72.
7. Mahmoud Mohamed Elaasser, Marwa Mostafa Abdel-Aziz, Rasha Ahmad El-Kassas. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumor activities of pyranone derivative obtained from Aspergillus candidus. J Microbiol Biotechnol Res 2011;1:5-17.
8. Monali G Desale, MG Bodhankar. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from vitex negundo linn. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2013;2:389-95.
9. Onsare JG, Kaur H, Arora DS. Antimicrobial activity of Moringa oleifera from different locations against some human pathogens. Academia J Med Plants 2013;1:80-91.
10. Ramesha A, Sunitha VH, Srinivas C. Antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites from endophytic fungi isolated from Nerium oleander. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2013;4:683â€“93.
11. Nameirakpam Nirjanta Devi, Femina Wahab. Antimicrobial properties of endophytic fungi isolated from medicinal plant Camellia Sinesis. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2012;3:420â€“7.
12. Prabavathy D, Valli Nachiyar C. Antimicrobial and antidiabetic activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Adathoda Beddomei. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:780-3.
13. Rajeswara rao BR, Syamasundar KV, Rajput DK, Nagaraju G, Adinarayana G. Biodiversity conservation and cultivation of medicinal plants. J Pharmacogn 2012;3:59-62.
14. Dhanalakshmi R, Umamaheswari S, Sugandhi P, Prasanth DA. Biodiversity of the endophytic fungi isolated from Moringa oleifera of Yercaud hills. Int J Pharma Sci Res 2013;4:1064-8.
15. Maria GL, Sridhar KR, Ravi raja NS. Antimicrobial and enzyme activity of mangrove endophytic fungi of the southwest coast of India. J Agric Technol 2005;1:67â€80.
16. Nithya K, Muthumary J. Bioactive metabolite produced by Phomopsis sp., an endophytic fungus in Allamanda cathartica linn. Recent Res Sci Technol 2011;3:44-8.