• Said-al Ahl Hussein H. A. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Department, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St. (formerly El Tahrir St.) Dokki, Giza, Egypt
  • Mohamed S. Hussein Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Department, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St. (formerly El Tahrir St.) Dokki, Giza, Egypt
  • Kirill G. Tkachenko V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia
  • Mpumelelo Nkomo University of South Africa, Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, South Africa
  • Fhatuwani N. Mudau University of South Africa, Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, South Africa


Objective: The objective of this research was to evaluate the significance of the plant's origin and to assess the essential oil composition of Artemisia vulgaris grown in Egypt simultaneously evaluating the effect of environmental conditions on essential oil composition.

Methods: Seeds were planted and the essential oils extracted, using hydrodistillation, from the plants that grew. The resulting essential oils were examined, using gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thus also evaluating the essential oil chemotype “fingerprint†in A. vulgaris

Results:  The study identified: the most abundant compounds being camphor, 3, 5-dimethylcyclohexane, germacrene D, cubebene, yomogi alcohol, artemisia alcohol, caryophyllene, while is lower concentrations thujopsene, muurolene, borneol, terpinen-4-ol, valencene, elemene and humulene. Despite the origins of the seeds, the chemical profile was very similar to those of plants grown in Egypt, thus suggesting essential oil composition was significantly influenced by the environmental conditions.

Conclusion: Based on the present study, It is suggested that seed origin may play a less significant part if the seed is planted in an environment different to that of its origin, this study proved that and favors the plant-environment interaction to influence the secondary metabolite composition. This supports that plant metabolite profiles are greatly affected by the environment they are grown in. 

Keywords: Gas chromatography, Chemotype, Essential oils, Medicinal plant


Download data is not yet available.


1. Wright CW. Artemisia. Taylor and Francis. New York, USA; 2002.
2. Oberpriele C. Temporal and spatial diversification of circum-Mediterranean Compositae-Antemideae. Taxon 2005;54:951-66.
3. Teixeira da Silva JA. Mining the essential oils of the anthemideae. Afr J Biotechnol 2004;3:706–20.
4. Furlenmeir MM. Wunderwelt der Heilpfl anzen. RVG. Zurich; 1983.
5. Uzun E, Sariyar G, Adsersen A. Traditional medicine in Sakarya province (Turkey) and antimicrobial activities of selected plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95:287-96.
6. Tümen G, Sekendiz O. Plants used in traditional medicine in Balıkesir and central villages. Uludağ Balıkesir 1989;86:19-22.
7. Akalın E. Wild plants used in the tekirdağ region as medicine and food. MSc, İstanbul University Institute of Health Sciences; 1993.
8. Korkmaz H, Gürdal A. Effect of Artemisia santonicum L. on blood glucose in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Phytother Res 2002;16:675-6.
9. Kalemba D, Kusewicz D, Swiader K. Antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Artemisia asiatica Nakai. Phytother Res 2002;16:288-91.
10. Tan RX, Zheng WF, Tang HQ. Biologically active substances from the genus Artemisia. Planta Med 1998;64:295-302.
11. Cui SD. Codex of Chinese traditional medicine. Hei Long-jiang Science and Technology Press, Ha Er-bin; 1989.
12. Quisumbing E. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines; Bureau of Printing: Manila, Philippine; 1978.
13. Tan RX, Lu Wolfender H, Yu JL, Zheng TT, Yang WF, Gafner L, et al. Mono-and sesquiterpenes and antifungal constituents from Artemisia species. Planta Med 1999;65:64-7.
14. Wang J, Zhu F, Zhou XM, Iu CY, Lei CL. Repellent and fumigant activity of essential oil from Artemisia vulgaris to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: tenebrionidae). J Stored Prod Res 2006;42:339-47.
15. Pugazhvendan SR, Ross PR, Elumalai K. Insecticidal and repellant activities of four indigenous medicinal plants against stored grain pest, Tribalium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2012;2:S16-S20.
16. Chantraine JM, Laurent D, Ballivian C, Saavedra G, Ibanez R, Vilaseca LA. Insecticidal activity of essential oils on Aedes aegypti larvae. Phytother Res 1998;12:350-4.
17. Sinha B. An appraisal of the traditional post-harvest pest management methods in Northeast Indian uplands. Indian J Traditional Knowledge 2010;9:536-43.
18. Williams JD, Xie T, Acharya DN. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisa vulgaris L. Reveal the Possible Existence of New Chemotypes, Proc Am Chem Soc Nat, Philadelphia; 2012. p. 204.
19. Amiel E, Ofir R, Dudai N, Soloway E, Rabinsky T, Rachmilevitch S. Betacaryophyllene, a compound isolated from the biblical balm of Gilead (Commiphora gileadensis) is a selective apoptosis inducer for tumor cell lines. J. Evidence Based Complementary Altern Med 2012. 2012/872394.
20. Su J, Lai H, Chen J, Li L, Wong YS, Chen T, et al. Natural borneol, a monoterpenoid compound, potentiates selenocystine-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by enhancement of cellular uptake and activation of ROS-mediated DNA damage. PLoS One 2013;8:e63502.
21. Liu Y, Whelan RJ, Pattnaik BR, Ludwig K, Subudhi E, Rowland H, et al. Terpenoids from Zingiberofficinale (Ginger) induce apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells through the activation of p53. PLoS One 2012;7:e53178.
22. Jerkoviç I, Masteliç J, Milos M. Chemical variability of Artemisia vulgaris L. essential oil originated from the mediterranean area of france and Croatia. Phytother Res 2003;18:436-40.
23. Haider FPD, Dwivedi AA, Naqvi AA, Bagchi GD. Essential oil composition of Artemisia vulgaris harvested at different growth periods under Indo-Gangetic plain conditions. J Essent Oil Res 2003;15:376-8.
24. Nkomo M, Katerere DR, Vismer HK, Cruz T, Balayssac S, Malet-Martino M, et al. Fusarium inhibition by wild populations of the medicinal plant Salvia africana-lutea L. linked to metabolomic profiling. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2014;14:99.
25. Kim HK, Verpoorte R. Sample preparation for plant metabolomics. Phytochem Anal 2010;21:4-13.
26. Gunther G. The Essential Oils. Nastrand Press: New York, USA; 1961.
27. Williams JD. Artemisia vulgaris L. influence of geographical origin, harvest time and chemotypes on 1,8-cineole concentration. Int J Professional Holistic Aromather 2012;1:11-4.
28. Williams JD, Campbell MA, Jaskolka MC, Xie T. Artemisia vulgaris L. chemotypes. Am J Plant Sci 2013;4:1265-9.
29. Burzo I, Ciocarlan V, Delian E, Dobrescu A, Badulescu L. Researches regarding the essential oil composition of some Artemisia L. Species. Tomul LIV, fasc. 2, s. II a. Biologievegetală 2008;54:86.
30. Govindaraj S, Ranjitha Kumari BD. Composition and larvicidal activity of Artemisia vulgaris L. stem essential oil against Aedes aegypti. Jordan J Biol Sci 2013;6:11-6.
31. Hwang YS, Wu KH, Kumamoto J, Axelrod H, Mulla MS. Isolation and identification of mosquito repellents in Artemisia vulgaris. J Chem Ecol 1985;11:1297-306.
32. Michaelis K, Vostronsky O, Paulini H, Zintland R, Knoblock K. Das atherische Å‘leaus bluten von Artemisia vulgaris L. Z Naturforsch 1982;37C:152-8.
33. Nano GM, Bicchi C, Frattini C, Gallino M. On the composition of some oils from Artemisia vulgaris. Planta Med 1976;30:209-15.
34. Mucciarelli M, Caramiello R, Maffei M, Chalva F. Essential oils from some Artemisia species growing spontaneously in North‐West Italy. Flavour Fragrance J 1995;10:25.
35. Hurabielle M, Malsot M, Paris M. Chemical study of two oils from wormwood: Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Artemisia vulgaris Linnaeus of chemotaxonomic interest. Riv Ital EPPOS 1981;63:296-9.
36. Misra LN, Singh SP. α-Thujone, the major component of the essential oil from Artemisia vulgaris growing wild in nilgiri hills. J Nat Prod 1986;49:941.
37. Naf-Muller R, Pickenhagen W, Willhalm B. New irregular monoterpenes in Artemisia vulgaris. Helv Chim Acta 1981;64:1424-30.
38. Thao NTP, Thuy NT, Hoi TM, Thai TH, Muselli A, Bighelli A, et al. Artemisia vulgaris L. from vietnam: chemical variability and composition of the oil along the vegetative life of the plant. J Essent Oil Res 2004;16:358-61.
39. Pino AJ, Rosado A, Fuentes V. Composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vulgaris L. herb from Cuba. J Essent Oil Res 1999;11:477-8.
40. Dung NX, Nam VV, Huong HT, Leclercg PA. The chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vulgaris L. var Indica Maxim, from vietnam. J Essent Oil Res 1992;4:433-4.
41. Azimova SS, Glushenkova A. I Artemisia vulgaris L. lipids, lipophilic components and essential oils from plant sources. Springer Science and Business Media; 2011. p. 101-2.
42. Sadaka MWM, Moustapha CH, Hasen T. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vulgaris L. from Syria. J Damascus Univ Basic Sci 2012;28:283-92.
470 Views | 830 Downloads
How to Cite
H. A., S.- al A. H., M. S. Hussein, K. G. Tkachenko, M. Nkomo, and F. N. Mudau. “ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF ARTEMISIA VULGARIS GROWN IN EGYPT”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 8, no. 9, Sept. 2016, pp. 120-3, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2016.v8i9.12288.
Original Article(s)