CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MENTHA LONGIFOLIA AGAINST CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED CARDIOTOXICITY IN RATS: A BIOCHEMICAL, ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY
Objective: The current research was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective activity of Mentha longifolia (ML) leaf extract on cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.
Methods: Cardiotoxicity was induced in Albino wistar rats of either sex by administering a single injection of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg, i. p.) on the first day of the experimental period. Mentha longifolia (250 and 500 mg/kg, p. o.) was administered daily for 10 d immediately after administration of cyclophosphamide on the first day. The general observations such as oxidative marker enzyme assays, ECG and histopathology were examined.
Results: Cyclophosphamide administration significantly (p<0.05) increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased the levels of antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Cyclophosphamide elevated the levels of biomarker enzymes like creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), creatine kinase isoenzyme NAC (CK-NAC) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Further, the cyclophosphamide-treated rats showed changes in electrocardiographic parameters. Treatment with Mentha longifolia significantly (p<0.05) reversed the status of cardiac biomarkers, ECG and oxidative enzymes in cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity. Histopathological examination was also supported the potential cardioprotective effect of Mentha longifolia with reduced damage to the myocardium.
Conclusion: The biochemical, ECG and histopathology reports support the potential benefits of Mentha longifolia against myocardial damage which could be attributed to antioxidant activity.
2. Stanklewicz A, Skyzydlewska E. Amifostine antioxidant effect on serum of rats treated with cyclophosphamide. Pol J Environ Stud 2005;14:341-6.
3. Desouza CA, Santini G, Marino G, Nati S, Congiu AM, Vigorito AC, et al. Amifostine (WR-2721), a cytoprotective agent during high-dose cyclophosphamide treatment of non-hodgkinâ€™s lymphomas: a phase II study. Braz J Med Biol Res 2000;33:791-8.
4. Goldberg MA, Antin JH, Guinan EC, Rappeport JM. Cyclophosphamide cardiotoxicity: an analysis of dosing as a risk factor. Blood 1986;68:1114-8.
5. Becker H, Potyka P, Weber C, Renelt M, Federlin K. T-helper cell subsets in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. Immun Infekt 1991;19:26â€“7.
6. Yeh ETH, Tong AT, Lenihan DJ, Yusuf W, Swafford J, Champion C, et al. Cardiovascular complications of cancer therapy-diagnosis, pathogenesis and management. Am Heart Assoc 2004;109:3122-31.
7. Angie MAM, Paka GD, Ntentie FR, Dimodi H, Ngondi JL, E nyong JO. Protective effect of a hydroethanolic extract of Solanum scabrum and Cola verticillata against cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in female rats. J Food Res 2014;3:18-30.
8. Dzamic AM, Sokovic MD, Ristic MS, Novakovic M, Grujic-Jovanovic S, Tesevic V, et al. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson (Lamiaceae) essential oil. Botanica Serbica 2010;34:57-61.
9. Sandhar HK, Kumar B, Prasher S, Tiwari P, Salhan M, Sharma P. A review of phytochemistry and pharmacology of flavanoids. Int Pharm Sci 2011;1:25-41.
10. Akroum S, Bendjeddou D, Satta D, Lalaoui K. Antibacterial activity and acute toxicity effect of flavanoids extracted from Mentha longifolia. Am-Eurasian J Sci Res 2009;4:93-6.
11. Alamgeer, Akhtar MS, Jabeen Q, Bashir S, Malik MNH, Khan HU, et al. Antihypertensive and toxicity studies of aqueous methanolic extract of Mentha longifolia L. J Anim Plant Sci 2013;23:1622-7.
12. Sharopov F, Sulaimonova VA, Setzer WN. Essential oil composition of Mentha longifolia from wild populations growing in Tajikistan. J Med Act Plants 2012;1:76-84.
13. Viswanathaswamy AHM, Patel UM, Koti BC, Gadad PC, Patel NL, Thippeswamy AHM. Cardioprotective effect of Saraca indica against cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity in rats: a biochemical electrocardiographic and histopathological study. Indian J Pharmacol 2013;45:44-8.
14. Chakraborty M, Asdaq SM. Interaction of Semecarpus anacardium L. with propranolol against isoproterenol induced myocardial damage in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2011;49:200-6.
15. Razavi SM, Zarrini G, Molavi G. The evaluation of some biological activities of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. growing wild in Iran. Pharmacologia 2012;3:535-8.
16. Khan RA, Khan NA, Khan FU, Ahmed M, Shah AS, Khan MR, et al. Phytochemical, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Periploca aphyla and Mentha longifolia, selected medicinal plants of district Bannu, Pakistan. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2012;6:3130-5.
17. Percival M. Antioxidants. Clin Nutr Insights; 1998. p. 1-4.
18. Sekeroglu V, Aydin B, Sekeroglu ZA. Viscum album L. extract and quercetin reduce cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity, urotoxicity, and genotoxicity in mice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011;12:2925-31.
19. Yener NA, Sinanoglu O, Ilter E, Celik A, Sezgin G, Midi A, et al. Effects of spirulina on cyclophosphamide-induced ovarian toxicity in rats: a biochemical and histomorphometric evaluation of the ovary. Biochem Res Int 2013:1-6. Doi.org/10.1155/2013/764262.
20. Shanmugarajan TS, Arunsunder M, Somasundaram I, Krishnakumar E, Sivaraman D, Ravichandiran V. Protective effect of Ficus hispida Linn. on cyclophosphamide provoked oxidative myocardial injury in rat model. Int J Pharmacol 2008;1:1â€‘10.
21. Atlee JL. Protective cardiac dysrhythmias: diagnosis and management. Anesthesiology 1997;86:1397â€‘424.
22. Levine ES, Friedman HS, Griffith OW, Colvin OM, Raynor JH, Lieberman M. Cardiac cell toxicity induced by 4â€‘hydroperoxycyclophosphamide is modulated by glutathione. Cardiovasc Res 1993;27:1248â€‘53.