INFLUENCE OF SEASONS AND PLANT PARTS ON THE ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF THE ENDEMIC SPECIES ARISTOLOCHIA KRISAGATHRA SIVARAJAN AND PRADEEP

  • Soumya Murali Research Scholar, Department of Botany, Centre for Post-Graduate Studies and Research, Sacred Heart College, Thevara, Cochin, Kerala, India
  • Rashmi T. R. Research Scholar, Department of Botany, Centre for Post-Graduate Studies and Research, Sacred Heart College, Thevara, Cochin, Kerala, India
  • Francis M. S. Research Scholar, Department of Botany, Centre for Post-Graduate Studies and Research, Sacred Heart College, Thevara, Cochin, Kerala, India

Abstract

Objective: Aristolochia krisagathra, a species endemic to the Western Ghats of India is found closely allied to two other species native to India, A. indica and A. tagala. The plant is medicinally useful and hence may harbor important phytochemical constituents. The phytochemical studies on this plant are less. Hence, the objective of the research was to analyse the oil composition of this endemic plant considering the seasons and plant parts.

Methods: The essential oil analyses of both the leaf and stem oil of the plant was carried out in three different periods, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon to analyse the major compounds present and the effect of seasons on the oil composition. Oil extraction of the shade dried leaves and stem were done in a clevenger type apparatus. 4 h of hydro distillation was done and the oil samples were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: The stem oil yield was higher than leaves and the oil colour of the leaves and stem varied. The results showed the predominance of sesquiterpenes. Diterpenes were completely absent in the stem oil in all the three seasons but was present in leaf oil in small concentrations. The oil yield from stem was higher than leaves. The major compound in the leaf and stem oil varied. Major compound in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon remained the same, copaene in the leaf and alloaromadendrene in the stem. The major compound in the monsoon period was delta-cadinene in leaf and spathulenol in stem. Caryophyllene, the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, was present in both the stem and leaf oil irrespective of the seasons studied.

Conclusion: The study showed that the plant parts and seasons are important factors affecting the oil composition. Hence while collecting medicinal plants and their oils for various bioactivities, these factors need to be considered.

Keywords: A. krisagathra, Seasonal variation, Essential oil

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Neinhuis C, Wanke S, Hilu KW, Muller K, Borsch T. Phylogeny of aristolochiaceae based on parsimony, likelihood, and bayesian analyses of trnL-trnF sequences. Plant Syst Evol 2005;250:7-26.
2. Wanke S, Favio G, Christoph N. Systematics of pipevines: combining morphological and fast‐evolving molecular characters to investigate the relationships within subfamily aristolochioideae (Aristolochiaceae). Int J Plant Sci 2006;167:1215-27.
3. Nayar TS, Rasiya BA, Mohanan N, Rajkumar G. Flowering plants of Kerala. A Handbook. Thiruvananthapuram: Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute; 2006
4. Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S. Medicinal plants used by the tribals of Tirunelveli hills, Tamil Nadu to treat poisonous bites and skin diseases. Indian J Traditional Knowledge 2005;4:229-36.
5. Murali S, Francis MS, Rashmi TR. Determination of aristolochic acid i concentration in the four species of Aristolochia using HPLC. Indo Am J Pharm Res 2014;4:2449-54.
6. Sharma Suman, Stuti Singh, James Bond, Apekshita Singh, Anjana Rustagi. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of essential oils from clove and eucalyptus. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:291-4.
7. Cantoria MC. State of the art seminar series of biological sciences division. National Academy of Science and Technology, NAST Conference; 1985. p. 1-23.
8. Murali S, Francis MS, Rashmi TR. GC-MS analysis of stem and leaf oil of A. krisagathra sivarajan and pradeep-an endemic of Western Ghats, India. J Essent Oil-Bear Plants 2014;17:1130-6.
9. James AT, Martin AJ. Gas-liquid partition chromatography; the separation and micro-estimation of volatile fatty acids from formic acid to dodecanoic acid. Biochem J 1952;50:679–90.
10. Shafi PM, Rosamma MK, Kaiser J, Reddy PS. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Aristolochia indica. Fitoterapia 2002;73:439-41.
11. Wu TS, Amooru G, Da CRS, Ping CK. Terpenoids of Aristolochia and their biological activities. Nat Prod Rep 2004;21:594-624.
12. Yu JQ, Zhi XL, Xiao QC, Jia CL, Guo LZ. Composition, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of essential oils from Aristolochia mollissima. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2007;23:162-7.
13. Figueiredo A, Cristina JG, Barroso MSP, Johannes JCS. The composition of the essential oils from leaves and flowers of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium. Flavour Fragrance J 1992;7:219-22.
14. Gazim ZC, Ana CLA, Ana MCH, Claudia MR, Izalina AN, Gilberto AF, et al. Seasonal variation, chemical composition, and analgesic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from leaves of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) codd in Southern Brazil. Molecules 2010;15:5509-24.
15. Santos GKN, Kamilla AD, Rosângela AB, Claudio AGC, Diana DL, Norma BG, et al. Essential oils from Alpinia purpurata (Zingiberaceae): chemical composition, oviposition deterrence, larvicidal and antibacterial activity. Ind Crops Prod 2012;40:254-60.
16. Figueiredo AC, José GB, Luis GP, Johannes JCS. Factors affecting secondary metabolite production in plants: volatile components and essential oils. Flavour Fragrance J 2008;23:213-26.
17. Canela N, Esteban F, Nelson A, Roser V, Salvador C. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Aristolochia gibertii hooker from paraguay. J Essent Oil Res 2004;16:566-7.
18. Priestap HA, Bandoni AL, Neugebauer M, Rüċker G. Investigation of the essential oils from Aristolochia triangularis. J Essent Oil Res 1990;2:95-8.
19. Padalia RC, Ram SV, Amit C, Chandan SC. Seasonal variation in essential oil composition of Artemisia nilagirica var. septentrionalis from foot hills of western Himalaya. Rec Nat Prod 2014;8:281-5.
Statistics
299 Views | 890 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
Murali, S., R. T. R., and F. M. S. “INFLUENCE OF SEASONS AND PLANT PARTS ON THE ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF THE ENDEMIC SPECIES ARISTOLOCHIA KRISAGATHRA SIVARAJAN AND PRADEEP”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 8, no. 9, Sept. 2016, pp. 252-7, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2016v8i9.13411.
Section
Original Article(s)