IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF NUTRACEUTICAL FORMULATION AND ITS POTENTIATION BY SELF-FORTIFICATION AND COW URINE DISTILLATE FORTIFICATION METHODS
Objective: This study prepared, evaluated immunomodulatory activity of nutraceutical formulation and studied the effect of self-mortification and cow urine distillate fortification methods on the immunomodulatory potential of nutraceutical formulation.
Methods: Three types of nutraceutical formulations i.e. Nutraceutical formulation (NF), self fortitfied nutraceutical formulation (SFNF) and self fortitfied nutraceutical formulation fortified with cow urine distillate (SFNECUD) were prepared using fine powders of amla, apple, garlic, onion, wheat grass, papaya, turmeric and cow urine distillate by different methods. The immunomodulatory activity of nutraceutical formulations at a dose of 500 mg/kg was assessed by various immune function parameters like cell-mediated immunity (neutrophil adhesion, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia), humoral immunity (serum immunoglobulins level and haemoagglutination antibody titer), and phagocytic activity (carbon clearance and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell activity).
Results: Oral administration of NF, SFNF and SFNFCUD showed significant (p<0.01) increase in adhesion of neutrophils, potentiation of the DTH reaction and attenuation of cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia. A significant increase in serum immunoglobulin levels and production of circulating antibody titer in response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) was also observed. In addition, an increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay and an increase in the phagocytic activity of PMN cells was observed.
Conclusion: From the above results, it can be concluded that all three types of formulations showed significant immunostimulant activity. SFNF and SFNFCUD showed better immunomodulatory activity than NF suggesting the potentiation of immunomodulatory potential of NF activity by fortification methods.
2. Patwardhan B, Kalbag D, Patki PS, Nagsampagi BA. Search of immunomodulatory agents: a review. India Drugs 1990;28:348-58.
3. Premanathan M, Rajendran S, Ramanathan T, Kathiresan K, Nakashima H, Yamamoto N. A survey of some Indian medicinal plants for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity. Indian J Med Res 2000;112:73-7.
4. Brower V. Nutraceuticals: poised for a healthy slice of the healthcare market? Nat Biotechnol 1998;16:728-31.
5. Philippe R, Colin W, Wright, Merlin L Willcox, Ben Gilbert. Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions. Malaria J 2011;10:S4.
6. Allen L, de Benoist B, Dary O, Hurrell R. World Health Organization, food and agricultural organization of the united nations. Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. Geneva, Switzerland; 2006.
7. Patil PR, Patil MR, Mane A, Patil S. Immunomodulatory effects of fruits of Barringtonia racemosa Linn. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013;2:216-9.
8. Wilkinson PC, Vane JK, Ferreria SH. Handbook of experimental pharmacology, Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1978. p. 109.
9. Karthikumar S, Jegatheesan K, Thangaraja A, Banupriya K, Dhivya T, Malarvizhi JM. Immunomodulatory activity of Eclipta prostrata in SRBC immunized mice. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2011;3:52-5.
10. Thatte UM, Chhabria SN, Karandikar SM, Dahanukar SA. Protective effects of Indian medicinal plants against cyclophosphamide neutropenia. J Postgrad Med 1987; 33:185-8.
11. Mullen PA. Zinc sulphate turbidity test as an aid to diagnosis. Veter Ann 1975;15:451-5.
12. Sedlinsk M, Krej J, Vysko M. Evaluation of field methods for determining immunoglobulins in Sucking Foals. Acta Vet Brno 2005;74:51-8.
13. Mitra SS. Immunomodulatory effect of IM-133. Phytother Res 1999;13:341-3.
14. Puri A, Saxena RP, Saxena KC. Immunostimulant agents from Andrographis peniculata. J Nat Prod 1993;56:995-9.
15. Das M, Dasgupta SC, Gomes . The immunomodulatory and anti-neoplastic activity of common Indian plants. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2009;53:311-7.
16. Daswani BR, Radha Yegnanarayan. Immunomodulatory activity of septilin, a polyherbal preparation. Phytother Res 2002;16:162-5.
17. Vinothapooshan G, Sundar K. Immunomodulatory activity of various extracts of Adhatoda vasica Linn. in experimental rats. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2011;5:306-10.
18. Rao CV. Immunology. Introduction, India: Rajkamal Electric Press; 2006.
19. Miller LE, Ludke HR, Peacock JE, Tomar RH. Manual of laboratory Immunology. Lea and Febiger; 1991. p. 1-18.
20. Kadry MS. Antioxidant and immunostimulant effect of Carica papaya Linn. aqueous extract in acrylamide intoxicated rats. Acta Inform Med 2012;20:180-5.
21. Gokhale AB, Damre AS, Saraf MN. Investigations into the immunomodulatory activity of Argyreia speciosa. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;84:109-14.
22. Feng ZH, Zhang GM, Hao TL, Zhou B, Zhang H, Jiang ZY. Effect of diallyl trisulfide on activation of T-cells and macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity. J Tongji Med Univ 1994;14:142-7.
23. Bruce Beutler. Innate immunity: an overview. Mol Immunol 2004;40:845-59.