PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES OF LEAF AND STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF POLYALTHIA FRAGRANS (DALZ.) BEDD.â€“AN ENDEMIC SPECIES OF WESTERN GHATS
Objective: Phytochemical constituents of various solvent extracts of leaf and stem bark of Polyalthia fragrans (Dalz.) Bedd were screened. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated.
Methods: Crude extracts of methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and aqueous of leaf and stem bark were evaluated for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method and antioxidant activity by DPPH (diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assay. Quantitative analysis of total phenolics was done by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoids by aluminum chloride method.
Results: The study revealed the presence of several physiologically active phytochemicals such as alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids and tannins. The highest antibacterial activity of methanol extract of the leaf was observed against Bacillus subtilis with 14.33Â±0.57 mm inhibition zone and water extract of stem bark against Proteus vulgaris with 17.67Â±1.52 mm inhibition zone among other extracts. The lowest activity of leaf methanol and leaf water extract was observed against Bacillus subtilis. The IC50 values of 58.18Â±2.04 Âµg/ml, 116.58Â±2.43 Âµg/ml, 134.78Â±3.64 Âµg/ml and 387.28Â±2.9 Âµg/ml for DPPH activity were observed in methanol stem bark, ethyl acetate stem bark, methanol leaf and ethyl acetate leaf extracts respectively. The reducing power of extracts was very potent which increased with increasing concentrations of the sample.
Conclusion: The results indicate that phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids and tannins may be responsible for the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The results suggest that P. fragrans can be further researched to be used as a natural source of a potent drug by mankind.
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