PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES OF LEAF AND STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF POLYALTHIA FRAGRANS (DALZ.) BEDD.–AN ENDEMIC SPECIES OF WESTERN GHATS


Arunkumar K., K. R. Chandrashekar

Abstract


Objective: Phytochemical constituents of various solvent extracts of leaf and stem bark of Polyalthia fragrans (Dalz.) Bedd were screened. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated.

Methods: Crude extracts of methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and aqueous of leaf and stem bark were evaluated for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method and antioxidant activity by DPPH (diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assay. Quantitative analysis of total phenolics was done by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoids by aluminum chloride method.

Results: The study revealed the presence of several physiologically active phytochemicals such as alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids and tannins. The highest antibacterial activity of methanol extract of the leaf was observed against Bacillus subtilis with 14.33±0.57 mm inhibition zone and water extract of stem bark against Proteus vulgaris with 17.67±1.52 mm inhibition zone among other extracts. The lowest activity of leaf methanol and leaf water extract was observed against Bacillus subtilis. The IC50 values of 58.18±2.04 µg/ml, 116.58±2.43 µg/ml, 134.78±3.64 µg/ml and 387.28±2.9 µg/ml for DPPH activity were observed in methanol stem bark, ethyl acetate stem bark, methanol leaf and ethyl acetate leaf extracts respectively. The reducing power of extracts was very potent which increased with increasing concentrations of the sample.

Conclusion: The results indicate that phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids and tannins may be responsible for the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The results suggest that P. fragrans can be further researched to be used as a natural source of a potent drug by mankind.


Keywords


Polyalthia fragrans, Phytochemicals, Antibacterial activity, Antioxidant activity

| PDF | HTML |

References


Ncube NS, Afolayan AJ, Okoh AI. Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural compounds of plant origin: current methods and future trends. Afr J Biotechnol 2008;7:1797-806.

Winston JC. Health promoting properties of common herbs. Am J Nutr 1990;70:491-9.

Mabberly DJ. The plant book: a portable dictionary of the higher plants. Cambridge University Press: New York; 1987.

Connolly JD, Haque ME, Khadir AA. Two7, 7-bisdehydroaporphine alkaloids from Polyalthia bullata. Phytochemicals 1996;43:295-7.

Wu YC. Azafluorene and aporphine alkaloids from Polyalthia longifolia. Heterocycles 1989;29:463.

Wu YC, Duh CY, Wang SK, Chen KS, Yang TH. Two new natural azafluorene alkaloids and a cytotoxic aporphine alkaloid from Polyalthia longifolia. J Nat Prod 1990;53:1327–31.

Abu Zarga MH, Shamma MA. Spectral method for the determination of the position of a phenolic group on a ring A of an aporphine–four new aporphine from P. acuminata. J Nat Prod 1982;45:471-5.

Gonzalez MC, Serrano A, Zafra–Polo MC, Cortes D, Rao KS. Polycerasoidin and polycerasoidol, two new prenylated benzopyran derivatives from Polyalthia cerasoides. J Nat Prod 1995;58:1278-84.

Kijjoa A, Pinto MMM, Pinto PMM, Tantisewie B, Herz W. Clerodane derivatives from Polyalthia viridis. Phytochemicals 1990;29:653-5.

Padmaa MP, Khosa RL. Phytoconstituents from the genus Polyalthia–a review. J Pharm Res 2009;2:594-605.

Raghunathan K, Mitra MK. Pharmacognosy of indegenous drugs. Central council for research in Ayurveda and Siddha, New Delhi; 1982. p. 127-39.

Kirthikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. Industrial Books Distributer, Dehradun; 1998. p. 72.

Singh V, Pandey RP. Ethnobotany of Rajasthan. Scientific Publishers; 1998. p. 175.

Kirthikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. Industrial Books Distributer, Dehradun; 1995. p. 1830-2.

Kabir S, Chowdhury AMS, Rashid MA. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the crude extracts of Polyalthia simiarum. Dhaka Univ J Sci 2011;59:199-200.

Trotter H. The common commercial timbers of India and their uses, Govt. of India Press: Nasik; 1959. p. 208-28.

Scheffer TC, Morrell JJ. Natural durability of wood: a worldwide checklist of species, forest research laboratory Oregon State University; 1998.

Jennifer M, Adrian C, Newton, Sara O, Malin R. The international timber trade: a working list of commercial timber tree species. Botanic gardens conservation international Descanso house-Richmond, UK; 2014. p. 14.

Dey PM, Harborne JB. Methods in plant biochemistry, Academic Press: London; 1987.

Taga MS, Miller EE, Pratt DE. Chia seeds as a source of natural lipid antioxidants. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1984;61:928-31.

Zishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging affects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 1999;64:555-9.

Liyana, Pathiranan CM, Shahidi F. Antioxidant activity of commercial soft and hard wheat (Triticum aestivum L) as affected by gastric pH conditions. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:2433-40.

Oyaizu M. Studies on product on browning reaction prepared from glucose amine. Japan J Nutr 1986;44:307-15.

Dimitrios B. Sources of natural phenolic antioxidants. Trends Food Sci Technol 2006;17:505-12.

Cao G, Sofic E, Prior RL. Antioxidant and prooxidant behavior of flavonoids: structure activity relationships. Free Radical Biol Med 1997;22:749–60.

Meir S, Kanner J, Akiri B, Hadas SP. Determination and involvement of aqueous reducing compounds in oxidative defense systems of various senescing leaves. J Agric Food Chem 1995;43:1813-5.

Asokkumar K, Umamaheswari M, Bahrudeen A, Sivashanmugam AT, Subhadradevi V, Ravi TK. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the fractions of Ficus microcarpa using in vitro and ex vivo models. Functional Plant Sci Biotechnol 2010;4:17-27.

Hidayathulla S, Chua LS, Chandrashekar KR. Phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Hopea ponga (Dennst) Mabberly extracts. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;4:326-30.

Ghosh G, Subudhi BB, Badajena LD, Ray J, Mishra MK, Mishra SK. Antibacterial activity of Polyalthia longifolia var. angustifolia stem bark extract. Int J PharmTech Res 2011;3:256-60.

Kavitha PA, Pawan K, Narasimah MTP, Gopinath SM. Antibacterial activity of Polyalthia longifolia against hospital isolates of Bengaluru district. Int J Latest Res Sci Tech 2013;2:508-10.

Kabir S, Zahan R, Mosaddik A, Chowdhury AMS, Hasan CM, Rashid MA. Antioxidant and antitumor activities of Polyalthia simiarum (Buch.-Ham. Ex Hook. F and Thomson) Hook. F. and thomson turk. J Pharm Sci 2013;10:405-14.

Gowdhami M, Sarkar BL, Ayyasamy PM. Screening of phytochemicals and anti bactereal activity of Annona squamosa extracts. Int J Pharm Sci Invent 2014;3:30-9.

Ravindra CS, Kalaichelvan VK. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of leaf extracts of Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb). Planch. Int J Appl Pharm 2014;6:6-8.

Kavita SM, Asha AK, Sucheta AG, Nirmala RD, Kashalkar RV. Evaluation of phenol, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of Polyalthia longifolia. J Chem Pharm Res 2011;3:764-9.

Mariod AA, Abdelwahab SI, Ahmed YM, Fauzi PNM, Chuen CS. Anti oxidant activity of different parts from Annona squamosa and Catunaregam nilotica methanol extract. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2012;11:249-57.

Saritha B, Karpagam, Sumathi. Studies on antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid content of Pisonia alba Span. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:106-9.

Fewell AM, Roddick JG. Interactive antifungal activity of the glycoalkaloids, solanine and chaconine. Phytochemicals 1993;33:323–8.

Barnabas CG, Nagarajan S. Role of flavonoids and tannins in some medicinal plants: a review. Fitoterapia 1988;3:508-10.

Burapedjo S, Bunchoo A. Antimicrobial activity of tannins from Terminalia citrine. Planta Med 1995;61:365-6.

Uzuma D, Ahmadu R, Bwai DM, Thomas SA. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Polyalthia longifolia crude extracts. Asian J Pharm Biol Res 2011;4:480-5.

Sivashanmugam AT, Tapan KC. In vitro evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of medicinal plant Polyalthia longifolia (Sonner.) Thw. leaf extract. J Pharm Res 2011;4:3776-80.

Lalawmpuii PC, Malsawmtluangi C, Zothanpuia, Kakoti BB. Phytochemical screening and determination of antioxidant activity of Helicia nilagirica Bedd., an ethnomedicinal plant of Mizoram, India. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:246-9.

Goveas SW, Abraham A. Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of stem and leaf extracts of Coscinium fenestratum. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6:218-21.




About this article

Title

PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES OF LEAF AND STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF POLYALTHIA FRAGRANS (DALZ.) BEDD.–AN ENDEMIC SPECIES OF WESTERN GHATS

Keywords

Polyalthia fragrans, Phytochemicals, Antibacterial activity, Antioxidant activity

DOI

10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i8.13915

Date

01-08-2017

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Vol 9, Issue 8, 2017 Page: 20-24

Online ISSN

0975-1491

Statistics

71 Views | 51 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

Arunkumar K.
Department of Applied Botany, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri- 574199, Konaje, India
India

K. R. Chandrashekar
Department of Applied Botany, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri- 574199, Konaje, India
India


Article Tools



Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.