• Ajoy Borah Demonstrator, Department of Pharmacology, Jorhat Medical College, Jorhat-785001, Assam, India
  • Binita Singha Post graduate student, Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati-32, Assam, India
  • Swopna Phukan Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati-32, Assam, India



Forced swimming test, Tail suspension test, Penicillin, Depression, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis


Objective: Depression is a major psychiatric disorder affecting nearly 350 million people worldwide and imposes a substantial health burden on the society. Ceftriaxone has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in animals. It has also undergone trials as a treatment option for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of ceftriaxone in mice.

Methods: Ceftriaxone was administered at three different doses (0.130, 0.195 and 0.260g/kg) to Swiss albino mice of either sex by intra peritoneal (i. p.) route. The period of immobility in control and drug-treated mice were recorded in forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The antidepressant effect of ceftriaxone indicated by the decrease in duration of immobility was compared to that of fluoxetine (0.020 g/kg, i. p.).

Results: Ceftriaxone decreased the duration of immobility in mice. It showed a significant dose-dependent antidepressant effect. The antidepressant effect of 0.260g/kg of ceftriaxone was comparable to that of fluoxetine in the TST but not in the FST.

Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate antidepressant activity of Ceftriaxone. The study shows that ceftriaxone has additional action on the central nervous system other than neuroprotection. Ceftriaxone therapy in cases of encephalomeningitis and in various cases of hemorrhages in the brain can, therefore, prevent the development of depression in future


Download data is not yet available.

References [Last accessed on 02 Jul 2016].

Nemeroff CB. The burden of severe depression: a review of diagnostic challenges and treatment alternatives. J Psychiatr Res 2007;41:189–206.

Lai JS. A systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary patterns and depression in community-dwelling adults. Am J Clin Nut 2014;99:181–97.

Thachil A, Mohan R, Bhugra D. The evidence base of complementary and alternative therapies in depression. J Affective Disord 2007;97:23–35. [Last accessed on 02 Jul 2016].

Nash J, Nutt D. Antidepressants. Psychiatry 2007;6:289–94.

Sharma HL, Sharma KK. Principles of pharmacology. Penicillin, Cephalosporins, and other Beta-Lactam Antibiotics. Paras Medical Publishers. 2nd edition; 2013. p. 728.

Rothstein JD, Patel S, Regan MR, Haenggeli C, Huang YH, Bergles DE, et al. Beta-lactam antibiotics offer neuroprotection by increasing glutamate transporter expression. Nature 2005;433:73–7.

Yacila G, Sari Y. Potential therapeutic drugs and methods for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Curr Med Chem 2014;21:3583–93.

Berry JD, Shefner JM, Conwit R, Schoenfeld D, Keroack M, Felsenstein D, et al. Design and initial results of a multi-phase randomized trial of ceftriaxone in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PLOS One 2013;8:e61177.

Cudkowicz M, Shefner J. NEALS consortium STAGE 3 clinical trial of ceftriaxone in subjects with ALS. Neurology 2013;80:S36.001.

Cudkowicz ME, Titus S, Kearney M, Yu H, Sherman A, Schoenfeld D, et al. Safety and efficacy of ceftriaxone for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a multi-stage, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2014;13:1083-91.

Porsolt RD, Bertin A, Jalfre M. Behavioral despair in mice: a primary screening test for antidepressants. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 1977;229:327-36.

Zomkowski A, Oscar A, Lin J, Santos A, Calixto J, Rodrigues A. Evidence for serotonin receptor subtypes involvement in agmatine antidepressant-like effect in the mouse forced swimming test. Brain Res 2004;1023:253-63.

Jawaid T, Kamal M, Imam SA. Antidepressant activity of methanolic extract of verbena officinalis linn. plant in mice. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:308-10.

Steru L, Chermat R, Thierry B, Simon P. The tail suspension test: a new method for screening antidepressants in mice. Psychopharmacology 1985;85:367-70.

Tripathi KD. Essentials of medical pharmacology. 7th edition. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd; 2013. p. 728.

Medhi B, Prakash A. Practical manual of experimental and clinical pharmacology. First Edition. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd; 2010. p. 24-5.

Katzung BG, Master SB, Trevor AJ. Basic and clinical pharmacology. 12th edition. McGraw-Hill Companies, California; 2012. p. 521-37.

Šagud M, Peleš AM, Begić D, Ćusa BV, Kramarić M, Živković M, et al. Antipsychotics as antidepressants: What is the mechanism? Psychiatria Danubina 2011;23:302-7.

Khanwelkar CC, Gokhale DV, Sontakke AV, Patil SS. Effects of H1–receptor antagonists in antidepressant tests in rats. Al Ameen J Med Sci 2008;1:84-92.

Taqa GA. Evaluation of the antidepressant activity of diphenhydramine in mice. Innovare J Med Sci 2013;1:15-8.

Mukta NC, Manjunath M, Gopalkrishna HN, Gokul P. Evaluation of the role of the noradrenergic system in the antidepressant activity of Tramadol using tail suspension test in Albino mice. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2011;2:281-2.

Manjunath M, Mukta NC, Gopalkrishna HN, Gokul P. Evaluation of the role of the noradrenergic system in the antidepressant activity of tramadol using forced swim test in Albino mice. Pharmacologyonline 2011;3:243-50.

Faron GA, Kusminder M, Inan SY, Siwanowicz J, Piwowarczyck T, Dziedzicka WM, et al. Long-term exposure of rats to Tramadol alters brain dopamine and alpha 1 adrenoceptor function that may be related to antidepressant potency. Eur J Pharmacol 2004;501:103-10.

Jesse CR, Bortolatto CF, Savegnago L, Rocha JBT, Nogueira CW. Involvement of L-arginine-nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of tramadol in the rat forced swimming test. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2008;32:1838-43.

Jesse CR, Wilhelm EA, Barbosa NBV, Nogueira CW. Involvement of different types of potassium channels in the antidepressant-like effect of tramadol in the mouse forced swimming test. Eur J Pharmacol 2009;613:74-8.

Lipski J, Wan CK, Bai J. Neuroprotective potential of ceftriaxone in in vitro models of stroke. Neuroscience 2007;146:617-29.

Wei J, Pan X, Pei Z, Wang W, Qiu W, Shi Z, et al. The beta-lactam antibiotic, ceftriaxone, provides neuroprotective potential via anti-excitotoxicity and anti-inflammation response in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2012;73:654-60.

Cui C, Cui Y, Gao J, Sun L, Wang Y, Wang K, et al. Neuroprotective effect of ceftriaxone in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. J Neurol Sci 2014;35:695-700.

Akina S, Thati M, Puchchakayala G. Neuroprotective effect of ceftriaxone and selegiline on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Adv Biol Res 2013;7:266-75.

Walia V. Role of enzymes in the pathogenesis of depression. J Crit Rev 2016;3:11-6.

Borsini F, Meli A. Is the forced swimming test a suitable model for revealing antidepressant activity? Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1988;94:147–60.



How to Cite

Borah, A., B. Singha, and S. Phukan. “ANTI-DEPRESSANT EFFECT OF CEFTRIAXONE IN FORCED SWIMMING TEST AND IN TAIL SUSPENSION TEST IN MICE”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 11, Nov. 2016, pp. 191-4, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2016v8i11.14466.



Original Article(s)