Nathiya S, Durga M, Devasena Thiyagarajan


Flavonoids are plant secondary metabolite shows a wide range of pharmacological and biological functions. Among the flavonoids, quercetin gained special attention for its potential therapeutic activities. The aim of this work was to summarize the medicinal property of quercetin, role of quercetin in synthesizing the silver and gold nanoparticles, pros and cons of quercetin, nanoencapsulation of quercetin and its advantages. This review article summarizes the published experimental research and scientific literature from the databases including PubMed, Google and local library searches. The results of these studies provide a complete understanding of the biological action of quercetin. Pharmaceutical effects of quercetin such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-toxic and immunomodulatory effects prove that quercetin has potential therapeutic value, though it has several beneficial effects on human health, it possesses some disadvantages like poor solubility, low bioavailability, the hydrophobic nature and poor permeability. To overcome the disadvantages of quercetin, it is encapsulated in the polymers to enhance its bioavailability and to increase its solubility. In this paper, a brief description about the encapsulation of quercetin and its application were focused.



Quercetin, Encapsulated Quercetin, Nanoencapsulation, Flavonoid.


Terao J, Piskula M, Qing Y. Protective effect of epicatechin, epicatechin gallate and quercetin on lipid peroxidation in phospholipids bilayer. Arch Biochem Biophy 1994;308:278-84.

Bhatt K, Flora SJS. Oral co-administration of α-lipoic acid, quercetin and captopril prevents gallium arsenide toxicity in rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2009;28:140-6.

Heijnen CG, Haenen GR, Acker VFA, Vijgh VWJ, Bast A. Flavonoids as peroxynitrite scavengers: the role of the hydroxyl groups. Toxicol In vitro 2001;15:3-6.

Urmila JJ, Amol SG, Priscilla DM, Ragini S, Sudha S, Girijesh G, et al. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticanceractivity of Quercetin and its analogues. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci 2011;2:1756-66.

Williams Ch A, Grayer RJ. Anthocyanins and other flavonoids. Nat Prod Rep 2004;21:539-73.

Rice-Evans CA, Miller J, Paganga G. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci 1997;2:152-9.

Bartosz G, Druga twarz tlenu (The Second Face of Oxygen). PWN, Warszawa 1995;179-203 (in Polish).

Burda S, Oleszek W. Antioxidant and antiradical activities of flavonoids. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:2774-9.

White CP, Hirsch G, Patel S, Adams F, Peltekian KM. Complementary and alternative medicines use by patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. In Canadian J Gastroenterol 2007;21(9):589-95.

Kumar A, Goyal R. Quercetin protects against acute immobilization stress-induced behaviors and biochemical alterations in mice. J Med Food 2008;11:469-73.

Lee BH, Jung SM, Lee JH, Kim JH, Yoon IS, Lee JH, et al. Quercetin Inhibits the 5-Hydroxytryptamine Type 3 Receptor-Mediated Ion Current by Interacting with Pre-Transmembrane Domain 1. Mol Cells 2005;20:69-73.

Hirai I, Okuno M, Katsuma R, Arita N, Tachibana M, Yamamoto Y. Characterisation of anti-staphylococcus aureus activity of quercetin. Int J Food Sci Technol 2010;45:1250-4.

Ramadan MF, Asker MMS. Antimicrobical and antivirial impact of novel quercetin-enriched lecithin. J Food Biochem 2009;33:557-71.

Walker CIB, Zanotto CZ, Ceron CS, Pozzatti P, Alves SH, Manfron MP, et al. Pharmacology activity and quercetin content of mirabilis jalapa l. Lat Am J Pharm 2009;28:241-6.

Orsolic N, Gajski G, Vrhovac GV, Dikic D, Prskalo ZS, Sirovina D, et al. DNA-Protective effects of quercetin or naringenin in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Eur J Pharmacol 2011;656:110-8.

Rogerio AP, Dora CL, Andrade EL, Chaves JS, Silva LFC, Senna LE, et al. Anti-Inflammatory effect of quercetin-loaded microemulsion in the airways allergic inflammatory model in mice. Pharmacol Res 2010;61:288-97.

El-Sayed NS, Rizk SM. The protective effect of quercetin, green tea or malt extracts against experimentally-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2009;3:191-201.

Chen TJ, Jeng JY, Lin CW, Wu CY, Chen YC. Quercetin Inhibition of Ros-Dependent and-Independent apoptosis in rat glioma c6 cells. Toxicol 2006;223:113-26.

Arash K. Protective effect of quercetin against necrosis and apoptosis induced by experimental ischemia and reperfusion in rat liver. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2010;4:22-6.

Anjaneyulu M, Chopra K. Quercetin, an anti-oxidant bioflavonoid, attenuates diabetic nephropathy in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2004;31:244-8.

Kalender Y, Kaya S, Durak D, Uzun FG, Demir F. Protective effects of catechin and quercetin on antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation and testis-histoarchitecture induced by chlorpyrifos in male rats. Environ Toxicol Phamacol 2012;33:141-8.

Nuengchamnong N, Lokkerbol AH, Ingkaninan K. Separation and detection of the antioxidant flavonoids, rutin and quercetin, using HPLC coupled on-line with colorimetric detection of antioxidant activity. Naresuan Univ J 2004;12(2):25-37.

Chien SY, Wu YC, Chung JG, Yang JS, Lu HF, Tsou MF, et al. Quercetin-Induced apoptosis acts through mitochondrial-and caspase-3-dependent pathways in human breast cancer mda-mb-231 cells. Hum Exp Toxicol 2009;28:493-503.

Wong MY, Chiu GNC. Simultaneous liposomal delivery of quercetin and vincristine for enhanced estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancer treatment. Anti-Can Drugs 2010;21:401-10.

Murakami A, Ashida H, Terao J. Multitagered cancer prevention by quercetin. In Can Let 2008;269:315-25.

Vijayababu MR, Arunkumar A, Kanagaraj P, Venkatamaran P, Krishnamoorthy G, Arunakaran J. Quercetin downregulates matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 proteins expression in prostate cancer cells (PC-3). In Mol Cell Biochem 2006;287:109-16.

Xing N, Chen Y, Mitchell SH, Young CYF. Quercetin inhibits the expression and function of the androgen receptor in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Carcino 2001;22:409-14.

Tanigawa S, Fujii M, Hou DX. Stabilization of p53 is involved in quercetin-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Biosci Biotech Biochem 2008;72:797-804.

Angelone T, Pasqua T, Di Majo D, Quintieri AM, Filice E, Amodio N, et al. Distinct signalling mechanisms are involved in the dissimilar myocardial and coronary effects elicited by quercetin and myricetin, two red wine flavonols. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc 2011;21:362-71.

Piedra TM, Andrade OR, MolinaVR, Singh N, Franco MJL, Webster SP, et al. A comparative study of flavonoid analogues on streptozotocin nicotinamide induced diabetic rats: quercetin as a potential antidiabetic agent acting via 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibition. Eur J Med Chem 2010;45:2606-12.

Huang RY, Yu YL, Cheng WC, OuYang CN, Fu E, Chu CL, et al. Immunosuppressive effect of quercetin on dendritic cell activation and function. J Immunol 2010;184:6815-682.

Giuliani C, Noguchi Y, Harii N, Napolitano G, Tatone D, Bucci I, et al. The flavonoid quercetin regulates growth and gene expression in rat FRTL-5 thyroid cells. Endocrinol 2008;149(1):84-92.

Mi Y, Zlang C, Li C, Taneda S, Wadanabe G, Suzuki, AK Toya K, et al. Quercetin protects embryonic chicken spermatogonial cells from oxidative damage intoxicated with 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol in Primary culture. Toxicol Lett 2005;190 (1):61-5.

Abdel-Raheem IT, Abdel-Ghany AA, Mohamed GA. Protective effect of quercetin against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Biol Pharm Bull 2009;32(1):61-7.

Saija A, Tomaino A, Trombetta D, Pellegrino ML, Tita B, Messina C, et al. In vitro antioxidant and photoprotective properties and interaction with model membranes of three new quercetin esters. Eur J Pharm and Biopharm 2003;56:167-74.

Cao G, Sofic E, Prior RL. Antioxidant and pro oxidant behavior of flavonoids: structure–activity relationships. Free Radic Biol Med 1997;22(5):749–60.

Kawai Y, Nishikawa T, Shiba Y, Saita S, Murota K, Shibata N, et al. Macrophage as a target of quercetin glucuronides in human atherosclerotic arteries: implication in the anti-atherosclerotic mechanism of dietary flavonoids. J Biol Chem 2008;283(14):9424–34.

Joshi JU, Gadge AS, D’Mello P, Sinha R, Srivastava S, Govil G. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activity of Quercetin and its analogues. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci 2011;2:1756-66.

Boots AW, Haenen GR, Bast A. Health effects of quercetin: from antioxidantto nutraceutical. Eur J Pharmacol 2008;585:325-37.

Hollman PCH, Trijp JMP, Buysman NCP, Gaag MS, Mengelers MJB, Vries JHM, et al. Relative bioavailability of the antioxidant flavonoid quercetin from various foods in man. Feder Eur Biochem Soc 1997;418:152-6.

Bors W, Saran M. Radical scavenging by flavonoid antioxidant. In Free Rad Res Commun 1987;2:289-94.

Choi JA, Kim JY, Lee JY, Kang CM, Kwon HJ, Yoo YD, et al. Induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by quercetin. Int J Oncology 2001;19:837-44.

Chen JC, Ho FM, Chao PDL. Inhibition of iNOS gene expression by quercetin is mediated by the inhibition of IκB kinase, nuclear factor-κB and STAT1, and depends on heme oxygenase-1 induction in mouse BV-2 microglia. In Eur J Pharmacol 2005;521:9-20.

Zhong L, Chen FY, Wang HR, Ten Y, Wang C, Ouyang RR. Effect of quercetin on morphology and VEGF secretion of leukemia cells NB4 in vitro. In Chin J Oncol 2006;28:25-7.

Daker M, Ahmad M, Khoo ASB. Quercetin-induced inhibition and synergistic with cisplatin–a chemotherapeuctic strategy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. In Can Cell Int 2012;12:34.

Shen F, Herenyiova M, Weber G. Synergistic downregulation of signal transduction and cytotoxicity by tiazofurin and quercetin in human ovarian carcinoma cells. In Life Sci 1999;64:1869-76.

Brusselmans K, Vrolix R, Verhoeven G, Swinnen JV. Induction of cancer cell apoptosis by flavonoids associated with their ability to inhibit fatty acid synthase activity. In J Biol Chem 2005;280:5636-45.

Cerutti PA. Prooxidant states and tumor promotion. Sci 1985;227:375-81.

Tan S, Wang C, Lu C. Quercetin is able to demethylate the p16INK4a gene promoter. Chemo 2008;55:6–10.

Nair HK, Rao KVK, Aalinkeel R, Mahajan S, Chawda R, Schwartz SA. Inhibition of prostate cancer cell colony formation by the flavonoid quercetin correlates with modulation of specific regulatory genes. Clin Vac Immunol 2004;11:63-9.

Meng Q, Velalar CN, Ruan R. Effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on mitochondrial integrity and antioxidative enzyme activity in the aging process of human fibroblast. Free Rad Biol Med 2008;44:1032-41.

Fresco P, Borges F, Diniz C, Marques MPM. New insights on the anticancer properties of dietary polyphenols. Med Res Rev 2006;26:747-66.

Fiander H, Schneider H. Dietary ortho phenols that induce glutathione S-transferase and increase the resistance of cells to hydrogen peroxide are potential cancer chemopreventives that act by two mechanisms: the alleviation of oxidative stress and the detoxification of mutagenic xenobiotics. Cancer Lett 2000;156:117-24.

Ambudkar SV, Sarfaty KC, Sauna ZE, Gottesman MM. P-Glycoprotein: From Genomics to Mechanism. Onco 2003;22:7468-85.

Borska S, Sopel M, Chmielewska M, Zabel M, Dziegiel P. Quercetin as a potential modulator of p-glycoprotein expression and function in cells of human pancreatic carcinoma line resistant to daunorubicin. Mol 2010;15:857-70.

Limtrakul P, Khantamat O, Pintha K. Inhibition of P glycoprotein function and expression by kaempferol and quercetin. J Chemother 2005;17:86-95.

Scambia G, Raneletti FO, Panici PB. Quercetin induces type-II estrogen-binding sites in estrogenreceptor-negative (MDA-MB231) and estrogen-receptor-positive (MCF-7) human breast-cancer cell lines. Int J Cancer 1993;54:462-6.

Ranelletti FO, Ricci R, Larocca LM, Maggiano N, Capelli A, Scambia G, Panici PB, et al. Growth inhibitory effect of quercetin and presence of type II estrogen binding sites in human colon-cancer cell lines and primary colorectal tumors. Int J Cancer 1992;50:486-95.

Li W, Shen F, Weber G. Ribavirin and quercetin synergistically downregulate signal transduction and are cytotoxic in human ovarian carcinoma cells. Oncol Res 1999;11:243-7.

Yoshida M, Sakai T, Hosokawa N. The effect of quercetin on cell cycle progression and growth of human gastric cancer cells. FEBS Lett 1990;260:10-3.

Yu CS, Lai KC, Yang JS, Chiang JH, Lu CC, Wu CL, et al. Quercetin inhibited murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vivo and promoted immune response. Phytother Res 2010;24:163-8.

Kim AR, Cho JY, Zou Y, Choi JS, Chung HY. Flavonoids differentially modulate nitric oxide production pathways in lipopolysaccharide activated RAW264.7 cells. Arch Pharm Res 2005;28:297-304.

Min YD, Choi CH, Bark H, Son HY, Park HH, Lee S, et al. Quercetin inhibits expression of inflammatory cytokines through attenuation of NF-kB and p38 MAPK in HMC-1 human mast cell line. Inflamm Res 2007;56:210-15.

Moreira MR, Kanashiro A, Kabeya LM, Polizello AC, Azzolini AE, Curti C, et al. Neutrophil effecter functions triggered by Fc-g and/or complement receptors are dependent on B-ring hydroxylation pattern and physicochemical properties of flavonols. Life Sci 2007;81:317-26.

Gong J, Chen SS. Polyphenolic antioxidants inhibit peptide presentation by antigen-presenting cells. Int Immuno Pharmacol 2003;3:1841-52.

Yu ES, Min HJ, An SY, Won HY, Hong JH, Hwang ES. Regulatory mechanisms of IL-2 and IFNg suppression by quercetin in T helper cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2008;76:70-8.

Muthiyan G, Bright JJ. Quercetin, a flavonoid phytoestrogen, ameliorates experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by blocking il-12 signaling through jak-stat pathway in t lymphocyte. J Clinical Immuno 2004;24(5):542-52.

Vizcaino FP, Bailley DB, Lodi F, Duarate J, Cogolludo A, Moreno L, et al. The flavonoid quercetin induces apoptosis and inhibits JNK activation in intimal vascular smooth muscle cells. Biochem Biophy Res Commun 2006;346:919-24.

Das DK, Chakraborty A, Bhattacharjee S, Dey S. Biosynthesis of stabilized gold nanoparticle using an aglycone flavonoid, quercetin. J Exp Nanosci 2012;8(4):649-55.

Lukman AL, Gong B, Marjo CE, Roessner U, Harris AT. Facile synthesis, stabilization, and anti-bacterial performance of discrete Ag nanoparticles using Medicago sativa seed exudates. J Colloid Interface Sci 2011;353:433-44.

Shankar SS, Rai A, Ankamwar B, Singh A, Ahmad A, Sastry M. Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms. Nat Mater 2004;3:482-8.

Das S, Roy P, Mondal S, Bera T, Mukherjee A. One pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles and application in chemotherapy of wild and resistant type visceral leishmaniasis. Colloids Surf B Biointer 2013;107:27-34.

Wieder ME, Hone DC, Cook MJ, Handsley MM, Gavrilovic J, Russell DA. Intracellular photodynamic therapy with photosensitizer-nanoparticle conjugates: cancer therapy using a Trojan horse. Photochem Photobiol 2006;5:727-34.

Huang X, Jain PK, El-Sayed IH, El-Saved MA. Determination of the minimum temperature required for selective photothermal destruction of cancer cells with the use of immunotargeted gold nanoparticles. Photochem Photobiol 2006;82:412-7.

Pal R, Charaborti AS. Preparation of gold nanoparticle-quercetin complexes by citrate reduction method. AIP Conference Proceedings 2010:283.

Sahoo SK, Labhasetwar V. Nanotech approaches to drug delivery and imaging. Drug Discov Today 2003;8:1112-20.

Meng XK, Tang SC, Vongehr S. A review on diverse silver nanostructures. J Master Sci Technol 2010;26:487-522.

Anbarasu K, Dhanappriya R, Raman D, Rajeswary H, Sivakumar P. In vivo study of antidiarrhoeal activity of dairy waste whey. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5:118-21.

Sivakumar P, Karthika P, Sivakumar P, Muralidharan NG, Devendran P, Renganathan S. Bio-Synthesis of silver nano cubes from active compound Quercetin-3-O-β-d-D-Galactopyranoside containing plant extract and its antifungal application. Asian J Pharma Clin Res 2013;6:76-9.

Zheng Y, Haworth IS, Zuo Z, Chow MSS, Chow AHL. Physicochemical and structural characterization of quercetin-b cyclodextrin complexes. J Pharm Sci 2005;94:1079-89.

Ghosh S, Upadhay A, Singh AK, Kumar A. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles loaded cotton fabric which may promote wound healing. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2007;1:1-10.

Ader P, Wessmann A, Wolffram S. Bioavailability and Metabolism of the flavonol Quercetin in the pig. Free Rad Biol Medicine 2000;28(7):1056-67.

Hu J, Chen L, Lei F, Tian Y, Xing DM, Chai YS, et al. Investigation of quercetin stability in cell culture medium: Role in in vitro experiment. African J Pharm Pharmacol 2012;6:1069-76.

Jain KK. Nanotechnology: applications, market and companies. Jain Pharm Biotech Publications 2005.

Hughes GA. Nanostructure-mediated drug delivery. Nanomed 2005;1:22-30.

Torchilin VP. Targeted pharmaceutical nanocarriers for cancer therapy and imaging. AAPS J 2007;9:128-47.

Gupta RB. Fundamentals of drug nanoparticles, in: RB Gupta, UB Kompella (Eds.), Nanoparticle Technology for Drug Delivery: Taylor & Francis, New York; 2006;3-4.

Maeda H, Wu J, Sawa T, Matsumura Y, Hori K. Tumor vascular permeability and the EPR effect in macromolecular therapeutics: A review. J Control Releas 2007;65:271-84.

Sahoo NG, Kakran M, Shaal LA, Li L, Muller RH, Pal M, et al. Preparation and Characterization of quercetin nanocrystals. J Pharm Sci 2010;100:2379-90.

Chiu YT, Chiu CP, Chien JT, Ho GH, Yang J, Chen BH. Encapsulation of lycopene extract from tomato pulp waste with gelatin and poly (γ-glutamic acid) as carrier. J Agri Food Chem 2007;55:5123-30.

Jahanshahi M, Najafpour G, Rahimnejad M. Applying the Taguchi method for optimized fabrication of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles. African J 2008;7:362-7.

Bernardy, Romio N, Paula A, Erika Dal, Carine, et al. Nanoencapsulation of Quercetin via Miniemulsion Polymerization. J Biomed Nanotech 2007;6:181-6.

Curcio M, Cirillo G, Parisi OL, Picci N, Puoci F. Quercetin imprinted nanospheres as novel drug delivery devices. J Funct Biomater 2012;3:269-82.

Lorenzo AC, Concheiro A. Molecularly imprinted polymers for drug delivery. J Chromatogr B 2004;804:231–45.

Flavin K, Resmini M. Imprinted nanomaterials: a new class of synthetic receptors. Anal Bioanal Chem 2009;393:437–44.

Kumari A, Yadav SK, Pakade YB, Singh B, Yadav SC. Development of biodegradable nanoparticles for delivery of quercetin. Colloids Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 2010;80:184-92.

Priprem A, Watanatorn J, Sutthiparinyanont S, Phachonpai W, Muchimapura S. Anxiety and cognitive effects of quercetin liposomes in rats. Nanomed 2008;4:70-8.

Zhang Y, Yang Y, Tang K, Hu X, Zou G. Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of quercetin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. J Appl Polym Sci 2008;107:891-7.

Cadena PG, Pereira MA, Cordeiro RBS, Cavalcanti IMF, Neto BB, Pimentel MC, et al. Nanoencapsulation of quercetin and resveratrol into elastic liposomes. Biochim Biophy Acta 2013;1828:309-16.

Kakran M, Shegokar R, Sahoo NG, Shaal LA, Li L, Muller RH, et al. Fabrication of quercetin nanocrystals: comparion of different method. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2012;80.

Tan Q, Liu W, Guo C, Zhai G. Preparation and evaluation of quercetin-loaded lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles for topical delivery. Int J Nanomed 2011;6:1621-30.

Song X, Zhao Y, Wu W, Bi Y, Cai Z, Chen Q, et al. PLGA nanoparticles simultaneously loaded with vincristine sulfate and verapamil hydrochloride: Systematic study of particle size and drug entrapment efficiency. Int J Pharm 2008;350:328-9.

Kouassi GK, Teriveedhi VK, Milby CL, Ahmad T, Boley MS, Gowda NM, et al. Nano microencapsulation and controlled release of linoleic acid in biopolymer matrices: effects of the physical state, water activity, and quercetin on oxidative stability. J Encap Adsorp Sci 2012;2:1-10.

Ghosh A, Mandal AK, Sarkar S, Panda S, Das N. Nanoencapsulation of quercetin enhances its dietary efficacy in combating arsenicinduced oxidative damage in liver and brain of rats. Life Sci 2009;84:75–80.

Capini C, Jaturanpinyo M, Chang HI, Mutalik S, McNally A, Street S, et al. Antigen-specific suppression of inflammatory arthritis using liposomes. J Immunol 2009;182:3556-65.

Ghosh A, Sarkar S, Mandal AK, Das N. Neuroprotective role of nanoencapsulated quercetin in combating ischemia-reperfusion induced neuronal damage in young and aged rats. PLoS One 2013;8(4):e57735.

Ghosh S, Dungdung SR, Chowdhury ST, Mandal AK, Sarkar S, Ghosh D, et al. Encapsulation of the flavonoid quercetin with an arsenic chelator into nanocapsules enables the simultaneous delivery of hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs with a synergistic effect against chronic arsenic accumulation and oxidative stress. Free Rad Biol Med 2011;51:1893-902.

Gao XG, Wang B, Wei X, Men K, Zheng F, Zhou Y, et al. Anticancer effect and mechanism of polymer micelle-encapsulated quercetin on ovarian cancer. Nanoscale 2012;4:7021-30.

About this article




Quercetin, Encapsulated Quercetin, Nanoencapsulation, Flavonoid.



Additional Links

Manuscript Submission


International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Vol 6, Issue 10, 2014 Page: 20-26

Online ISSN



2002 Views | 1046 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

Nathiya S
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, India.

Durga M
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, India.

Devasena Thiyagarajan
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology Anna University Chennai


Article Tools



  • There are currently no refbacks.