ANTIHYPERTENSIVE ACTIVITY ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BULB ELEUTHERINE AMERICANA MERR ON FRUCTOSE-INDUCED HYPERTENSION RATS
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate ethanolic extract of bulb of Eleutherine americana Merr as antihypertensive.
Methods: This study examined the effect of ethanol extract of bulb of Eleutherine americana Merr on urine volume, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram (ECG) profile. Diuretic activity was evaluated by the Lipschitz method. Furosemide (3.6 mg/kg) used as standard drug. Animal rats model of hypertension were induced by fructose 66% in the diet for 21 d. Captopril (2.5 mg/kg) used as standard antihypertension. Parameters measured were urine volume for 24 h, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and electrocardiogram profile.
Results: High fructose diet for 21 d reduced R-R, P-R interval of the electrocardiogram, increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate compared to normal group statistically significant (p<0.05). Animals received an ethanolic extract of the bulb of Eleutherine americana Merr doses of 25, 50, 100 mg/kg showed lowered systolic and lowered diastolic blood pressure (except for a dose of 100 mg/kg). Dose of 25, 50 mg/kg lowered systolic blood pressure was comparable to captopril 2.5 mg/kg (p>0.05). The group received a dose of 100 mg/kg showed diuretic activity comparable to furosemide 3.6 mg/kg (p>0.05). The group received a dose of 25, 50, 100 mg/kg, showed improved on R-R, P-R interval of the electrocardiogram, and heart rate.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of bulb Eleutherine americana Merr play important role in regulating blood pressure, increased urine volume and improved electrocardiogram profile.
2. Raya E Kheirbek, Ross Fletcher, Prakash Deedwania, Nawar Shara, Gregg C Fonarow, Maciej Banach, et al. Abstract 18649: comparative impact of isolated systolic hypertension vs systolic-diastolic hypertension on incident heart failure and all-cause mortality in community-dwelling older adults. Circulation 2014;130:A18649.
3. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, et al. The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. J Natl Cancer 2003;289:2560â€“72.
4. Alice Victoria Klein, Hosen Kiat. The mechanisms underlying fructose-induced hypertension: a review. J Hypertens 2015; 33:912â€“20.
5. Richard J Johnson, Mark S Segal, Yuri Sautin, Takahiko Nakagawa, Daniel I Feig, Duk-Hee Kang, et al. Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86;899â€“906.
6. Brown Clive M, Dulloo Abdul G, Yepuri G, Montani JP. Fructose ingestion acutely elevates blood pressure in healthy young humans. Am J Physiol: Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2008;294: R730â€“7.
7. Fitri Y, Rosidah, Suwarso E. Effects of inhibition cell cycle and apoptosis of sabrang onion extract (Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb.) on breast cancer cells. Pharmacy Faculty of Universitas Sumatera Selatan. Skripsi; 2014.
8. Daryono BS, Rahmadani WD, Sudarsono. Identification of bawang sabrang (Eleutherine americana Merr Ex K. Heyne) in Indonesia based on chromosome characters. Indonesian J Pharms 2012;24:22-9.
9. Tran LT, Yuen VG, McNeill JH. The fructose-fed rat: a review on the mechanisms of fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertension. Mol Cell Biochem 2009;332:145â€“59.
10. Pedro P Pereira-Junior, Moacir Marocolo, FabrÃcio P Rodrigues, Emiliano Medei, JosÃ© HM Nascimento. Noninvasive method for electrocardiogram recording in conscious rats: feasibility for heart rate variability analysis. An Acad Bras Cienc 2010;82:2.
11. Sreelakshmi R, Shan P Mohammed, Jyoti Harindran, Sriganesan P. Evaluation of diuretic activity of Mussaenda frondosa. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:117-8.
12. Mandeep R Mehra, MD Hector O, Ventura MD. ECG changes in response to diuresis in an ambulatory patient with congestive heart failure. CHF 2006;12:277â€“83.
13. Task Force of The European Society of Cardiology and The North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Heart rate variability-Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Circulation 1996;93:1043â€“65.
14. Mohandas Rai, Chandrashekar R, Manohar Vr, Ramya Kateel. Potent and Efficacious diuretic activity with the potassium-sparing effect of Terminalia belerica fruit pulp aqueous extract in Wistar albino rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9 Suppl 1:241-3.
15. James Nolan, MD Phillip D, Batin MD, Richard Andrews, MRCP, et al. Prospective study of heart rate variability and mortality in chronic heart failureâ€“Results of the united kingdom heart failure evaluation and assessment of risk trial (UK-Heart). Circulation 1998;98:1510â€“6.
16. Leonetti G, Cuspidi C, Facchini M, Stramba-Badiale M. Is systolic pressure a better target for antihypertensive treatment than diastolic pressure? J Hypertens Suppl 2000;18:S13-S20.
17. Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Konstantinos Aznaouridis, Christodoulos Stefanadis. Prediction of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality with arterial stiffness. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;55:1318-27.