PRACTICAL APPROACH TO GREEN CHEMISTRY


Meena Bhandari, Seema Raj

Abstract


Objective: The basic principles of green chemistry addresses various issues related to synthesis of chemical compounds: planning organic synthesis to maximise yield, prevention/minimization of waste, atom economy, the use of less lethal chemicals, use of safer solvents, renewable starting materials, energy efficiency and use of green catalysts. The objective of this study is to elaborate the practical approach of green methods.

Methods: In this paper, we elucidate some important common syntheses having green procedures which can be used in the fields of pharmaceutical chemistry and other fields as well.

Results: Green chemistry principles follow up to reduce pollution and environmental degradation by utilizing eco-friendly, non-hazardous, reproducible and efficient solvents and catalysts in the synthesis of drug molecules, drug intermediates and in researches involving synthetic chemistry. The paper also approaches green methods in which microwave radiation can be used as an energy efficient tool.

Conclusion: Experimental procedures are gathered from educational journals and laboratory manuals and are viewed in the light of efficacy of green chemistry principles.


Keywords


Green chemistry, Organic syntheses, Solvents, Laboratory, Reduce pollution

References


Clark JH. Chemistry goes green. Nat Chem 2009;1:12-3.

Reed SM, Hutchison JE. Green chemistry in the organic teaching laboratory: an environmentally benign synthesis of adipic acid. J Chem Educ 2000;77:1627-8.

Ahluwalia VK, Kidwai M. New trends in green chemistry. Springer, Berlin; 2004. p. 2-4.

Anastas PT, Warner JC. Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice. Oxf Univ Press: New York; 1998. p. 29-56.

Hjeresen DL, Schutt DL, Boese JM. Green chemistry and education. J Chem Educ 2000;77:1543-7.

Gribble GW. The diversity of naturally occurring organobromine compounds. Chem Soc Rev 1999;28:335.

Monograph on Green Chemistry. Laboratory Experiments. Green Chemistry Task Force Committee, DST, India; 2011. p. 1-79.

Schatz PF. Bromination of acetanilide. J Chem Educ 1996;73:26.

Gupta R, Lata. An economical and eco-friendly regioselective bromination of acetanilides using potassium bromide and ceric ammonium nitrate in polyethene glycol. Heterocyclic Lett 2012;2:297-300.

Halder J. An elegant and cost-effective method of aromatic bromination using sodium bromide and household bleach. Rasayan J Chem 2012;5:183-5.

McKenzie LC, Huffman LM, Hutchison JE. The evolution of a green chemistry laboratory experiment: greener brominations of stilbene. J Chem Educ 2005;82:306.

Bose AK, Ganguly SN, Manhas MS, Rao S, Speck J, Pekelny U, et al. Microwave-promoted rapid nitration of phenolic compounds with calcium nitrate. Tetrahedron Lett 2006;47:1885-8.

Lampman PDL, Chriz GM. Introduction to organic lab technique. College Publishing, New York; 1982.

Andrew PD. Solvent-free reactivity in the undergraduate organic laboratory. Green Chem Lett Rev 2009;2:87-100.

Modarresi-Alam AR, Nasrollahzadeh M, Khamooshi F. Solvent-free preparation of primary carbamates using silica sulfuric acid as an efficient reagent. ARKIVOC 2007;16:238-45.

Epps A, Barbas J, Mandouma G. Synthesis of substituted 2, 2’-dinitrobiphenyls by a novel solvent-free high yielding ullmann coupling biarylation. Inter J Innov Educ Res 2014;2:133-49.

Sheldon RA. Green solvents for sustainable organic synthesis. State of the art Green Chem 2005;7:267-8.

Tanaka K. Solvent-free Organic Synthesis. Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, Germany; 2003.

Tanaka K, Toda F. Solvent-free organic synthesis. Chem Rev 2008;100:1025-74.

Bose AK, Pednekar S, Ganguly SN, Chakraborty G, Manhas MS. A simplified green chemistry approach to the Biginelli reaction using ‘Grindstone Chemistry’. Tetrahedron Lett 2004;45:8351-3.

Rothenberg G, Downie AP, Raston CL, Scott JL. Understanding solid/solid organic reactions. J Am Chem Soc 2001;123:8701-8.

Doxsee KM, Hutchison JE. Green organic chemistry-strategies, tools, and laboratory experiments. Brooks/Cole: Pacific Grove, CA; 2004. p. 115-9.

Smith JG. Organic Chemistry, McGraw-Hill: New York; 2008. p. 917-28.

Woodward RB, Baer H. The reaction of furan with maleic anhydride. J Am Chem Soc 1948;70:1161.

Rideout DC, Breslow R. Hydrophobic acceleration of diels-alder reactions. J Am Chem Soc 1980;102:7816.

Sandier SR, Karo W. Organic functional group preparations. Academic Press: San Diego; 1989. p. 431-76.

Greene TW, Wuts PGM. Protective groups in organic synthesis. Wiley: Toronto; 1999. p. 355-8.

Saikia L, Baruah JM, Thakur AJ. A rapid, convenient, solventless green approach for the synthesis of oximes using grindstone chemistry. Org Med Chem Lett 2011;1:12.

Hathaway BA. An aldol condensation experiment using a number of aldehydes and ketones. J Chem Educ 1987;64:367.

Bhagat S, Sharma R, Chakraborti AK. Dual-activation protocol for tandem cross aldol condensation: an easy and highly efficient synthesis of α,α'-bis(arylmethylidene) ketones. J Mol Cat A: Chem 2006;260:235-40.

Phonchaiya S, Panijpan B, Rajviroongit S, Wright T, Blanchfield JT. A facile solvent-free cannizzaro reaction. J Chem Edu 2009;86:85-6.

Kirchhoff M, Ryan MEds. Greener approach to undergraduate chemistry experiments. Am Chem Soc 2002;25.

Trost BM. The atom economy-a search for synthetic efficiency. Science 1991;254:1471-7.

Ranu BC, Hajra A, Dey SS. A practical and green approach towards the synthesis of dihydropyrimidinases without any solvent and catalyst. Org Proc Res Dev 2002;6:817.

Mahajan SS, Sharma MM, Sridhar T. Uncatalyzed oxidation of 1,5,9-cyclododecatriene with molecular oxygen. Indus Eng Chem Res 2007;46:3057-62.

Xie ZF, Sakai K. Construction of medium and large sized cyclic beta-keto esters (or nitriles) via one-pot three carbon ring expansion of carbocyclic beta-keto esters and its application to the synthesis of (-)-Muscone. J Org Chem 1990;55:820-6.

Dowd P, Choi SC. Free radical ring expansion and rearrangement of large carbocyclic rings. Tetrahedron Lett 1991;32:565-8.

Wang DS, Wang DQ, Zhou CH. A synthesis of (±)-and (R)-muscone by radical ring expansion. Acta Chim Sinica 1995;53:909-15.

Taber DF, Straney PJ. The synthesis of laurolactam from cyclododecanone via a beckmann rearrangement. J Chem Educ 2010;87:1392.

Furuya Y, Ishihara K, Yamamoto H. Cyanuric chloride as a mild and active beckmann rearrangement catalyst. J Am Chem Soc 2005;127:11240-1.

Shariat M, Samsudin MW, Zakaria Z. One-pot synthesis of 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives under mild conditions using iminium cation from cyanuric chloride/ dimethylformamide as a cyclizing agent. Chem Cent J 2013;7:58.

Mandhare DB, Barhate VD. Development of extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of iron (iii) with schiff base 2-[(2-hydroxyphenylimino) methyl]-4-nitrophenol. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2016;8:89-91.

Mohan PC, Rao JV. Biological evaluation of schiff bases of new isatin derivatives for anti alzheimer's activity. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:114-7.

Al-Qalaf F, Mekheimer RA, Sadek KU. Cerium (IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) catalyzed the one-pot synthesis of 2-arylbenzothiazoles. Molecules 2008;13:2908-14.

Gupta AD, Sepay N, Mallik AK. An efficient microwave-assisted synthesis of 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1h)-ones by a three component reaction under catalyst-and solvent-free conditions. Eur Chem Bull 2016;5:185-8.

Varma RS. Solvent-free organic syntheses using supported reagents and microwave irradiation. Green Chem 1999;1:43-55.

Kidwai M. Dry media reactions. Pure Appl Chem 2001;73:147-51.

Acharjee J, Ghoshal A, Ghosh SK. Microwave-assisted synthesis: need of the hour. W J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;4:1741-9.

Zhaoqi Y, Pinhua S. Compare of three ways of synthesis of simple Schiff base. Molbank 2006;M514. Doi:10.3390/M514

Miglani S, Mishra M, Chawla P. The rapid synthesis of schiff-bases without solvent under microwave irradiation and their antimicrobial activity. Der Pharma Chem 2012;4:2265-9.

Saha M, Roy S, Chaudhuri SK, Bhar S. Microwave assisted ammonium formate-mediated synthesis of Hanstzch dihydro-pyridines under the solvent-free conditions-a green protocol. Green Chem Lett Rev 2008;1:99-102.

Saha M, Roy S, Chaudhuri SK, Bhar S. Microwave-assisted ammonium formate-mediated Knoevenagel reaction under solvent-free conditions-a green method for C–C bond formation. Green Chem Lett Rev 2008;1:112-3.

Jagwani D, Joshi P. A greener chemistry approach for the synthesis of 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1,2,3,4 tetrahydro-pyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2015;6:783-90.

Enamul Hassain S, Chaluvaraju KC, Niranjan MS, Zaranappa SC. Studies on microwave assisted synthesis of some schiff bases. Int Res J Pharm 2013;4:99-101.

Ranu BC, Hajra A, Dey SS. An efficient and green synthesis of 2-arylbenzothiazoles in an ionic liquid, [pmIm] Br under Microwave Irradiation. Chem Lett 2004;33:274-5.

Kumar A, Makrandi JK. A highly efficient one step green procedure for baker venkataraman rearrangement in an aqueous medium. Heterocyclic Lett 2012;2:271-6.

Khunt RC, Akbari JD, Manvar AT, Tala SD, Dhaduk MF, Joshi HS, et al. Green chemistry approach to the synthesis of some new trifluoromethyl-containing tetrahydropyridines under solvent free conditions. ARKIVOC 2008;9:277-84.

De Paolis O, Teixeira L, Török B. Synthesis of quinolines by a solid acid-catalyzed microwave-assisted domino cyclization-aromatization approach. Tetrahedron Lett 2009;50:2939-42.

Mitra S, Ragunath S, Mitra A, Sae Khow O. Green chemistry in teaching laboratory: microwave-induced reactions. New Jersey’s Science and Technology University; 2010. Available from: njit.edu/~mitra/green_chemistry/Content/Manual-april-2010.pdf. [Last accessed on 10 Sep 2016]

Fatemeh FB, Majid MH, Mina R, Ali G, Manouchehr J. Catalytic method for synthesis of aspirin by a green, efficient and recyclable solid acid catalyst (Preyssler’s Anion) at room temperature. J Chin Chem Soc 2007;54:1017-20.

Khurana JM. Sonochemistry. Chem Educ 1990. p. 24-9.

Varma RS, Naicker KP. Ultrasound-accelerated permanganate oxidation: an improved procedure for the synthesis of 1,2-cis diols from olefins. Tetrahedron Lett 1998;39:7463-6.

Madje BR, Ubale MB, Bharad JV, Shingare MS. Alum an efficient catalyst for erlenmeyer synthesis. S Afr J Chem 2010;63:158-61.

Rao SS, Reddy CVR, Dubey PK. An ultrasound-mediated green synthesis of benzimidazolylthiounsaturatednitriles using water as a green solvent. Org ChemInter 2014;1-6. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1155/2014/403803



About this article

Title

PRACTICAL APPROACH TO GREEN CHEMISTRY

Keywords

Green chemistry, Organic syntheses, Solvents, Laboratory, Reduce pollution

DOI

10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i4.15640

Date

14-02-2017

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Vol 9, Issue 4, 2017 Page: 10-26

Online ISSN

0975-1491

Statistics

77 Views | 107 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

Meena Bhandari
Department of Chemistry, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, K.R. Mangalam University, Sohna Road, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
India

Seema Raj
Department of Chemistry, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, K.R. Mangalam University, Sohna Road, Gurgaon, Haryana, India

 

Article Tools


Share

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.