ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI-LIPID PEROXIDATIVE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF THE EPIPHYTIC FERN, PYRROSIA HETEROPHYLLA (L.) M. G. PRICE
Objective: The present study was aimed at establishing the antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidative and antimicrobial properties of the plant Pyrrosia heterophylla (L.) M. G. PRICE.
Methods: Standard protocols were used to estimate the antioxidant potential of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of the plant. Radical scavenging ability of the extracts was assayed for 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals. Total antioxidant activity assay was done following the phospho- molybdenum method. The reductive potential was measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Lipid peroxidation assay was done in vitro. Total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antimicrobial activity was identified by well diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by serial dilution method.
Results: Results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract (PHE) exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity followed by the methanolic extract (PHM) whereas the hexane extract (PHH) had the lowest activity. The percentage radical scavenging by PHE was found to be 86.63Â±0.85, 89.48Â±2.08 and 70.89Â±1.46 for DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radicals respectively, at a concentration of 800Î¼g/ml. The total antioxidant activity of PHE, PHM and PHH was found to be 538.33Â±3.51, 283.33Â±7.57and 13.76Â±3.95 ascorbic acid equivalents/g of extract respectively. Phenolic content of PHE was the highest (207.22Â±1.95 gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract), followed by PHM and PHH (197.92Â±2.00 and 37.50Â±2.18 GAE/g respectively). Total reducing power was also found to be the highest in PHE followed by PHM and PHH as per the FRAP assay. All the extracts were found to possess inhibitory activity against the tested microorganisms. MIC50 value of all the extracts was below 40 Âµg/ml.
Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-lipid peroxidation potentials of the plant P. heterophylla (L.) M. G. PRICE.
2. Valko M, Izakovic M, Mazur M, Rhodes CJ, Telser J. Role of oxygen radicals in DNA damage and cancer incidence. Mol Cell Biochem 2004;266:37-56.
3. Valko M, Leibfritz D, MoncolaJ, Cronin MD, Mazur M, Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Rev Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2007;39:44-84.
4. Halliwell B. Biochemistry of oxidative stress. Biochem Soc Trans 2007;35:1147-50.
5. Genestra M. Oxyl radicals, redox-sensitive signalling cascades and antioxidants. Rev Cell Signal 2007;19:1807-19.
6. Yoshikawa T, Toyokuni S, Yamamoto Y, Naito Y. editors. Free radicals in Chemistry, Biology and Medicine. London: OICA International; 2000.
7. Pham-Huy LA, He H, Pham-Huy C. Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health. Int J Biomed Sci 2008;4:89-96.
8. Schuler P. Natural antioxidants exploited commercially. In: Hudson BJF. editor. Food Antioxidants. London: Elsevier; 1990. p. 99-170.
9. Abdallah EM. An overview of the effects of antibiotics and medicinal plant extracts on the human microflora. Nova J Med Biol Sci 2016;5:1-6.
10. Rathee D, Rathee P, Rathee S, Rathee D. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Picrorrhiza kurroa, a traditional Indian plant used to treat chronic diarrhea. Arab J Chem 2016;9:S1307â€“13.
11. Caius JF. The medicinal and poisonous ferns of India. J Bombay Nat His Soc 1935;38:341-61.
12. George M, Josekumar VS. In vitro cytotoxicity screening, phytochemical profile and heavy metal analysis of different extracts of Acrostichum heterophyllum L. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2016;7:19-24.
13. Blois MS. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 1958;181:1199-200.
14. Delgado-Andrade C, RufiÃ¡n-Henares JA, Morales FJ. Assessing the antioxidant activity of melanoidin from coffee brews by different antioxidant methods. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:7832-6.
15. Gutteridge JM, Halliwell B. The deoxyribose assay: an assay both for 'free' hydroxyl radical and for site-specific hydroxyl radical production. Biochem J 1988;253:932-3.
16. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95:351-8.
17. Oyaizu M. Studies on the product of browning reaction-antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Japan J Nutr 1986;44:307-15.
18. Kannan RPR, Arumugam R, Anantharaman P. In vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extract from Enhalus acoroides (L. F.) Royle. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2010;3:898-901.
19. Singleton VL, Rossi JA Jr. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Viticul 1965;16:144-58.
20. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts. Approved standard Document M27-A. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Wayne, Pa; 1997.
21. Bondet V, Brand-Williams W, Berset C. Kinetics and mechanisms of antioxidant activity using the DPPH free radical method. LWT-Food Sci Technol 1997;30:609-15.
22. Aliev G, Palacios HH, Lipsitt AE, Fischbach K, Lamb BT, Obrenovich ME, et al. Nitric oxide as an initiator of brain lesions during the development of Alzheimer disease. Neurotox Res 2009;16:293-305.
23. Leopoldini M, Marino T, Russo N, Toscano M. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds:â€‰H-atom versus electron transfer mechanism. J Phys Chem 2004;108:4916-22.
24. Miller NJ, Rice-Evans CA. Factors influencing the antioxidant activity determined by the ABTS.+radical cation assay. Free Radical Res 1997;26:195-9.
25. Aliaga C, Lissi EA. The reaction of 2,2â€™-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) derived radicals with hydroperoxides. Kinetics and mechanism. Int J Chem Kinet 1998;30:565â€“70.
26. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncola J, Cronin MTD, Mazura M, Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2007;39:44-84.
27. Farhan H, Malli F, Rammal H, Hijazi A, Bassal A, Ajouz N, et al. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of Lebanese Eryngium creticum L. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:S1217-20.
28. Bajpai VK, Agrawal P. Studies on phytochemicals, antioxidant, free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effects of Trachyspermum ammi seeds. Indian J Pharm Educ Res 2015;49:58-65.
29. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM. Oxygen toxicity, oxygen radicals, transition metals and disease. Biochem J 1984;219:1-14.
30. Gogoi N, Gogoi A, Neog B. Free radical scavenging activities of Garcinia xanthochymus hook. f. and Garcinia lanceaefolia roxb. using various in vitro assay models. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:138-41.
31. Usha B, Pushpalatha KC. In vitro antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of leaf extracts of Grewia heterotricha Mast. Int J Curr Pharma Res 2016;8:68-72.
32. Brewer MS. Natural antioxidants: sources, compounds, mechanisms of action, and potential applications. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2011;10:221-47.
33. Iwansyah AC, Damanik RM, Kustiyah L, Hanafi M. Relationship between antioxidant properties and nutritional composition of some galactopoietic herbs used in Indonesia: a comparative study. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:236-43.
34. Guerrini A, Sacchetti G, Muzzoli M, Rueda GM, Medici A, Besco E. Composition of the volatile fraction of Ocotea bofo Kunth (Lauraceae) calyces by GC-MS and NMR fingerprinting and its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54:7778-88.
35. Dabur R, Gupta A, Mandal TK, Singh DD, Vivek B, Gurav AM, et al. Antimicrobial activity of some Indian medicinal plants. Afr J Tradit Complementary Altern Med 2007;4:313â€“8.