• Naruephon Watthanaphap Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Thailand
  • Surapol Natakankitkul Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Thailand
  • Nuchnart Jonglaekha Plant Protection Center, Royal Project Foundation, Thailand


Objective: The objective of this research was to improve the method of extracting pesticide residue from vegetable by using microwave-assisted extraction, headspace single drop microextraction (MAE-HS-SDME) and analysed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS).

Methods: Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) coupled with headspace single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) was used for extraction of chlorpyrifos insecticide residues in lettuce. The optimum conditions for obtaining efficient extraction have been tried; kind and quantity of solvent, extraction time, microwave irradiation power, pH value and the amount of salt added in the sample followed the method of Plackett–Burman. Optimum conditions for efficient analysis were evaluated by using a central composite design (CCD) combined with a response surface methodology (RSM).

Results: The optimum extract conditions from CCD for the MAE-HS-SDME method were: using 1.5 µl of n-butyl acetate, 460 W of the microwave power, 4.5 min of the extraction time, no pH adjustment and no salt addition. Verification of the optimized experimental conditions showed that validation of the determination coefficient ranges from the concentrations of 0.01 to 0.10 mg/l, equal to 0.999; the percentages of variation coefficient were ranges from 4.6 to 7.7%; the recoveries ranges from 70.0 to 79.5%; limit of detection was 0.003 mg/kg and limit of quantitation was 0.01 mg/kg.

Conclusion: In this study, the MAE-HS-SDME method coupled with GC-MS was found most suitable for chlorpyrifos analysis. The results obtained from analyzing chlorpyrifos in lettuce samples indicated that this method is rapid, simple, sensitive, reducible cost and safety for the analyst and the environment.

Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, Headspace single drop microextraction, Microwave-assisted extraction


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How to Cite
Watthanaphap, N., S. Natakankitkul, and N. Jonglaekha. “DETERMINATION OF CHLORPYRIFOS IN LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA L.) BY MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH HEADSPACE SINGLE DROP MICROEXTRACTION”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 9, no. 5, May 2017, pp. 248-55, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i5.16849.
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