ANATOMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF THEVETIA PERUVIANA L. A COMMONLY PLANTED ROADSIDE TROPICAL SHRUB OF BHUBANESWAR, ODISHA
Objective: Air pollution is one of the most severe environmental problems of developing cities which adversely affects both plant and human life. However, roadside plants in the urban locations help in reducing the pollution level from the air through foliar surface and act as pollution sink. In this work, an attempt was made to understand the impact of air pollution on urban roadside plants which act as bio indicator.
Methods: A study was conducted to check the impact of urbanization on air pollution by analyzing anatomical and biochemical aspects of Thevetia peruviana L. For anatomical analysis, the transverse sections of leaves were observed under a microscope; whereas for biochemical analysis, the estimation of chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein were determined by spectrophotometric methods. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme assays, as well as specific activity staining, were performed to study the antioxidant potential. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts, an assay for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were performed. Isoforms of CAT, GPX and SOD were separated using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and their activities were analyzed.
Results: Analysis of data revealed that the anatomical disturbances significantly occurred in exposed plants of various sites. Among biochemical parameters, photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid content were found to be decreased. A maximum (7.65Â±0.51, 3.78Â±0.56,11.43Â±0.91, 5.63Â±0.55 mg/g, respectively) decrement was noticed in leaves of the Pokhariput plant in comparison to Khorda NH5 (19.44Â±1.08, 10.12Â±1.03, 29.56Â±2.32, 10.22Â±1.21 mg/g, respectively) which is taken as control one. To determine the effect of air pollution on proteins, leaf extracts were analyzed by the Lowry method and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The substantial decrement of total protein and alteration in polypeptides were noticed in polluted sites. Meanwhile, the enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activities such as CAT, GPX and SOD were also detected.
Conclusion: The increment of antioxidant enzymes and alteration of proteins, suggesting the activation of defensive mechanisms in selected plants under air pollution stress and also the plants made physiological and biochemical adjustments to overcome the oxidative damage.
2. Skinder BM, Sheikh AQ, Pandit AK, Ganai BA, Kuchy AH. Effect of brick kiln emissions on commonly used vegetables of Kashmir valley. Food Sci Nutr 2015;3:604-11.
3. Deepalakshmi AP, Ramakrishnaiah H, Ramachandra YL, Radhika RN. Roadside plants as bioindicators of urban air pollution. IOSR J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol 2013;3:10â€“4.
4. Anonymous. Orissa population census; 2011. http://www. census2011.co.in/census/state/orissa.html. [Last accessed on 05 Dec 2016]
5. Sabat AK. Analysis of the underlying causes of environmental degradation in Bhubaneswar city. Int J Eng Res Appl 2012;2:210â€“4.
6. Anonymous. Smart cities mission. Ministry of urban development, Government of India; 2015. http://smartcities. gov.in/writereaddata/CitiesProfile/Orissa_Bhubaneswar.pdf. [Last accessed on 05 Dec 2016]
7. Pawar K, Dube B, Maheshwari R, Bafna A. Biochemical aspects of air pollution induced injury symptoms of some common ornamental roadside plants. Int J Biol Med Res 2010;1:291â€“4.
8. Mohapatra K, Biswal SK. Assessment of ambient air quality index (AQI) in Bhubaneswar, the capital city of Odisha. Int J Adv Res Sci Eng 2014;3:190â€“6.
9. Verma V, Chandra N. Biochemical and ultrastructural changes in Sida cordifolia L. and Catharanthus roseus L. to auto pollution. Int Scholarly Res Not 2014;2014:1â€“11.
10. Williams RJH, Lloyd MM, Ricks GR. Effects of atmospheric pollution on deciduous woodland I: Some effects on leaves of Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Leibl. Environ Pollut 1971;2:57â€“68.
11. Govindaraju M, Ganeshkumar RS, Suganthi P, Muthukumaran VR, Visvanathan P. Impact assessment of air pollution stress on plant species through biochemical estimations. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 2010;4:696â€“9.
12. Rai PK, Panda LLS. Roadside plants as bioindicators of air pollution in an industrial region, Rourkela, India. Int J Adv Sci Technol 2015;4:14â€“36.
13. Rai R, Rajput M, Agrawal M, Agrawal SB. Gaseous air pollutants: a review on current and future trends of emissions and impact on agriculture. J Sci Res 2011;55:77â€“102.
14. Seyyednejad SM, Koochak H, Vaezi J. Changes in anti-oxidative enzymes activity, protein content and ascorbic acid level in Prosopis juliflora exposed to industrial air pollution. J Biol Today's World 2013;2:482â€“92.
15. Patykowski J, KoÅ‚odziejek J. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities of european mistletoe (Viscum album L. Subsp. Album) leaves as a response to environmental stress caused by pollution of the atmosphere by nitrogen dioxide. Pol J Environ Stud 2016:25:725â€“32.
16. Usman L, Oluwaniyi O, Ibiyemi S, Muhammad N, Ameen O. The potential of oleander (Thevetia peruviana) in African agricultural and industrial development: a case study of Nigeria. J Appl Biosci 2009;24:1477â€“87.
17. Rajbhar N, Kumar A. Pharmacological importance of Thevetia peruviana. Int J Pharm Chem Sci 2014;3:260â€“3.
18. Arnon DI. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts: polyphenol oxidases in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiol 1949;24:1â€“15.
19. Strain HN, Bengavin TC, Walter AS. Analytical procedure for isolation, identification, estimation and investigation of chlorophyll. In: Pietro AS. Methods in enzymology. Academic Press: New York: NY; 1971. p. 452â€“76.
20. Duxbury AC, Yentsch CS. Plankton pigment monographs. J Mar Res 1956;15:19â€“101.
21. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951;193:265â€“75.
22. Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 1970;227:680â€“5.
23. Switzer RC. A highly sensitive silver stain for detecting proteins and peptides in polyacrylamide gels. Anal Biochem 1979;98:231â€“7.
24. Aebi HE. Catalase. In: Bergmeyer H. Method of Enzymatic analysis. Chemie: Weinheim: Germany; 1983. p. 273â€“7.
25. Bergmeyer HU. Methods of enzymatic analysis. 2nd Ed. Academic Press: New Work; 1974.
26. Das K, Samanta L, Chainy GBN. A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase using nitrite formation by superoxide radicals. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2000;37:201â€“4.
27. Woodbury W, Spencer A, Stahman M. An improved procedure using ferricyanide for detecting catalase isozymes. Anal Biochem 1971;44:301â€“5.
28. Hamill DE, Brewbaker JL. Isoenzyme polymorphism in flowering plants. IV. The peroxidase isoenzymes of maize (Zea mays L.). Physiol Plant 1969;22:945â€“58.
29. Beauchamp C, Fridovich I. Superoxide dismutase: Improved assay applicable to acrylamide gels. Anal Biochem 1971;44:276â€“87.
30. Mishra LC. Effect of environmental pollution on the morphology and leaf epidermis of Commelina bengalensis Linn. Environm Pollut 1982;28:281â€“4.
31. Stevovi S, Mikovilovi VS, Dragosavac DC. Environmental impact on morphological and anatomical structure of Tansy. Afr J Biotechnol 2010;9:2413â€“21.
32. Raina AK, Bala C. Effect of vehicular pollution on Duranta repens L. in Jammu city. J Appl Nat Sci 2011;3:211â€“8.
33. Heather G. Effect of air pollution on agricultural crops. Ministry of Agriculture, ON, Canada; 2003.
34. Chauhan A, Joshi PC. Effect of ambient air pollutants on wheat and mustard crops growing in the vicinity of urban and industrial areas. N Y Sci J 2010;3:52â€“60.
35. Rezanejad F. Air pollution effects on structure, proteins and flavonoids in pollen grains of Thuja orientalis L. (Cupressaceae). Grana 2009;48:205â€“13.
36. Rezanejad F, Majd A, Shariatzadeh SMA, Moein M, Aminzadeh M, Mirzaeian M. Effect of air pollution on soluble proteins, structure and cellular material release in pollen of Lagerstroemia indica L. (Lytraceae). Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 2003;45:129â€“32.
37. Rout JR, Sahoo SL, Das R, Ram SS, Chakraborty A, Sudarshan M. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities and elemental profiling of Abutilon indicum L. subjected to copper stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci India-Sect B Biol Sci 2016. Doi:10.1007/s40011-016-0725-z
38. Jana K, Ghosh A, Ghosh D. In vitro antioxidant potentiality of ethyl acetate fraction of the seed of Eugenia jambolana. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:167â€“70.