• Zana Ibraimi University of Prishtina, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacy
  • Agim Shehi University of Tirana, Faculty of Medicine
  • Ardiana Murtezani University of Prishtina, Faculty of Medicine
  • Fehim Haliti University of Pristina, Faculty of Medicine


Objective: The aim of this study was to discover sulfa residues in milk and to determine the most appropriate time required for allowing the consumption of milk after drug's use in dairy cattle.

Methods: 150 samples of raw milk were collected from 95% of dairy farms in Kosovo that were visited during years 2015-2016. At these farms, using a questionnaire, we have identified the treatment procedures of dairy cattle, the dose and the type of drug administered to them, as well as the duration of this administration. Then, ELISA screening method and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection (HPLC/FD) confirmatory method were used to analyse the collected samples.

Results: Out of 150 milk samples, 52% were given a combination of 400 mg sulfadiazine+80 mg trimethoprim, with a statistically significant difference compared to other sulfonamides p<0.01. During the examination by ELISA method, 8 of them (5%) had exceeded the limit of detection, while during the examination by HPLC/FD method, 4 of them (2.5%) had exceeded the maximum residue limit allowed. In the first 4 d after the treatment has ended, the level of sulfonamide residues was high 141.5%, which is as high as their initial dose, with statistically significant linear trend p<0.01.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that in the collected raw milk there were sulfonamide residues, whose level has fallen following 4 d of treatment of the animal. It also shows the necessary time allowed for milk consumption. During this time milk must not be consumed in order to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance in the human population.

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Sulfonamides, Residues, Milk, ELISA, HPLC


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How to Cite
Ibraimi, Z., A. Shehi, A. Murtezani, and F. Haliti. “THE POSSIBILITY OF DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE FROM MASSIVE AND UNCONTROLLED USE OF SULFONAMIDES IN MILK”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 9, no. 4, Mar. 2017, pp. 207-11, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i4.17298.
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