CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF FRACTIONS ISOLATED FROM FERONIA ELEPHANTUM
Keywords:Feronia elephantum, Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant, GC-MS
Objective: The leaves of Feronia elephantum are widely used in folk medicine in India to treat various ailments. In the present communication we report the cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of extracts and fractions of F. elephantum leaves.
Methods: The leaves of F. elephantum were extracted with hexane and ethyl acetate and checked for cytotoxic properties against human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell line. The active extract was subjected to column chromatography and fractions were bio-assayed. The active fraction was subjected to GC-MS analysis.
Results: Hexane extract exhibited good cytotoxic activity against A549 lung cancer cell line compared to ethyl acetate extract. Hexane extract showed 77.3% activity at the dose of 500 Âµg/mL with IC50 (50.6%) value of 125 Âµg/mL. Hexane extract was also tested at different time intervals of 12h, 24h, 48h and 72 h. The activity gradually increased. The active hexane extract was subjected to column chromatography. Based on thin layer chromatography profiles, similar fractions were combined to give 9 fractions. When the fractions were bio-assayed fraction 5 showed maximum cytotoxic activity. Fraction 5 was tested against A549 lung cancer cell line at different time intervals; the activity gradually increased. Fraction 5 was used to test the antioxidant properties using DPPH analysis. Maximum antioxidant activity was observed at 1000 Âµg/mL (71.63 Â± 0.15). Active fraction 5 was identified using GC-MS. It showed the presence of Estragole (50.82%), trans-anethole (p-propenylanisole, anise camphor) (14.98%) and Caryophyllene (9.22%).
Conclusion: The results showed that hexane extract of F. elephantum could be probed further in drug discovery programme.
Morton J, Miami FL. Wood-Apple In:Fruits of warm climates. BMC Complement Altern Med 1987:190-1.
Venkatachalam MR, Jebanesan A. Repellent activity of Ferronia elephantum Corr. (Rutaceae) leaf extract against Aedes aegypti (L.). Bioresource technology 2001;76(3):287-8.
Sharma P, Bodhankar SL, Thakurdesai PA. Protective effect of aqueous extract of Feronia elephantum correa leaves on thioacetamide induced liver necrosis in diabetic rats. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine 2012;2(9):691-5.
Manjusha M, Patil KM, Zambare GN, Khandelwal KR, Bodhankar SL. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Ferronia elephantum correa against thioacetamide and allyl alcohol intoxication in rats. Toxicol Int 2004;11:69-74.
Garg SC, J. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Feronia elephantum correa. Indian Sci 2001;63(2):155-7.
World Health Organization http:// www.who.int/ mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/, Cancer Fact sheet N297.
Balachandran C, Duraipandiyan V, Balakrishna K, Sundaram R, Vijayakumar A, Ignacimuthu S, et al. Lakshmi Synthesis and medicinal properties of plant-derived vilangin. Environ Chem Lett 2013;11:303-8.
Yousefzadi M, Heidari M, Akbarpour M, Mirjalili MH, Parsa AZM, J. In vitro cytotoxic activity of the essential oil of Dorema ammoniacum D. Don MiddleEast Res 2011;7(4):511-4.
Suhail MM, Wu W, Cao A, Mondalek FG, Fung K-M, Shih P-T, et al. Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human breast cancer cells. BMC Complement Altern Med 2011;11:129.
Silva SA, Figueiredo PM, Tomomasa Y. Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. Leaves Acta Amazonica 2007;37(2):281-6.
Senthilkumar A, Venkatesalu V. Chemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from the fruit pulp of wood apple. Ind Crops Prod 2013;46:66-72.
Amiri H. Essential oils composition and antioxidant properties of three thymus species. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine:eCAM 2012;2012:728065.
Khelifa HL, Brada M, Brahmi F, Achour D, Fauconnier G, L. M, et al. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil of Ocimum basilicum leaves from the northern region of algeria top class. Med 2012;1(2):25-30.
Tenore GC, Ciampaglia R, Arnold NA, Piozzi F, Napolitano F, Rigano D, et al. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the essential oil of Salvia lanigera from Cyprus. Food and chemical toxicology:an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 2011;49(1):238-43.
Oliveira TLC, Carvalho SM, Soares RA, Andrade MA, Cardoso MG, Ramos EM, et al. Antioxidant effects of Satureja montana L. essential oil on TBARS and color of mortadellatype sausages formulated with different levels of sodium nitrite LWTFood Sci Technol 2012;45:204-12.
Sousa MJ, Ferreira I. GuimarÃ£es R, Contribution of essential oils and phenolics to the antioxidant properties of aromatic plants. Ind Crops Prod 2010;32:152-6.
Dorman HJD, Peltoketo A, Hiltunen R, Tikkanen MJ. Characterisation of the antioxidant properties of de-odourised aqueous extracts from selected Lamiaceae herbs. Food Chem 2003;83:255-62.
Yanishlieva NV, Marinova E, Pokorny J, Natural antioxidants from herbs and spices. J Eur Sci Technol 2006;108:776-93.
Sousa MJ, Isabel CFR. GuimarÃ£es R, Ferreira Contribution of essential oils and phenolics to the antioxidant properties of aromatic plants. Ind Crops Prod 2010;32:152-6.
Muthulakshmi A, Jothibai GC, Margret R, Mohan VR, S. M, J Bioactive Components of Feronia elephantum Correa (Rutaceae). Pharma Sci. BMC Complement Altern Med 2012;02(02):69-74.
Rahman A, Nazrul C, J. Joti Sankhar Bhuiyan, Md. Shahidul Islam. Composition of the essential oil of Clausena Suffruticosa Leaf and evaluation of its antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities Trop Res 2012;11(5):739-46.
Coutinho H, Matias E, Santos K, Tintino SR, Souza C, Guedes G, et al. Enhancement of the Norfloxacin Antibiotic Activity by Gaseous Contact with the Essential Oil of Croton zehntneri. Journal Young Pharmacists:JYP 2010;2(4):362-4.