CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS, IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, ORAL ACUTE TOXICITY AND LD50 DETERMINATION OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES
Objective: The objective of this study was undertaken to estimate the total phenolic contents (TPCs), in vitro antioxidant of different solvent extracts of M. oleifera leaves, oral acute toxicity and LD50 determination of the 85% methanolic extract as well as the chromatographic isolation and identification of the extract constituents.
Methods: The antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves were estimated using three antioxidant assays and the total phenolic contents (TPCs) were also evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteuâ€™s assay. The n-BuOH extract undergoes further chromatographic isolation owing to the high antioxidant activity using 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) method, which resulted in the isolation of seven compounds.
Results: The results showed that the TPCs values of the tested extracts were varied from 309.52 to 43.28 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry extract. The reducing power antioxidant activities (RPAA) were 0.434, 0.402, 0.395, 0.149, 0.143 and 0.124, while the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) values were 316.43, 203.35, 181.56, 86.70, 76.62 and 50.83 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g dry extract; for n-BuOH, EtOAc, 85% MeOH, H2O, CH2Cl2, and pet. ether extracts, respectively. The oral acute toxicity study of the 85% methanol extracts of M. oleifera and M. peregrina revealed that; their LD50 values were 3458.3 and 4125 mg/kg respectively, thus the two plants could be classified as slightly toxic in the scale of Hodge and Sterner which reflected their nutrient values as edible plants. The isolated compounds were identified on the basis of their 1H and 13C-NMR spectra as; cis-p-coumaric acid 4-O-(2'-O-Î²-D-apiofuranosyl)-Î²-D-glucopyranoside (1), chlorogenic acid (2), niazirin (3), 3,4-dihydroxy-Î²-phenylethoxy-O-Î±-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(lâ†’2)-Î±-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1â†’3)-4-O-caffeoyl-Î²-D-glucopyranoside (4), gallic acid (5), taxifolin (6), and benzyl-carbamo-thioethionate (7).
Conclusion: The M. oleifera leaves showed promising antioxidant activities and slightly toxic behavior.
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