POTENTIAL ROLE OF MILK THISTLE SEED AND ITS OIL EXTRACTS AGAINST HEART AND BRAIN INJURIES INDUCED BY Î³-RADIATION EXPOSURE
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Silybum marianum (S. marianum) seeds extract its oil fraction against damage effect of Î³-radiation in female albino rats.
Methods: Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was used for the extraction of S. marianum seeds. Lipid patterns of S. marianum seeds oil were elucidated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). S. marianum seeds extract was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) were estimated in heart and brain tissues of the examined rats. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CKMB) were measured in the serum of the examined rats, and the brain biomarkers; dopamine and serotonin were also measured.
Results: The oil was found to be rich in linoleic acid (58.20%) and arachidic acid (23.38%). S. marianum seeds extract revealed the presence of taxifolin and six main active constituents of silymarin, including silydianin, silychristin, silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A and isosilybin B. Treatment of Î³-radiation damage effect using S. marianum seeds extract and its oil fraction led to a significant reduction of MDA levels in heart (139.6 and 165.5 nmol/g, respectively) and brain (158.5 and 135.2 nmol/g, respectively) tissues, however, significant increase of GSH levels in heart (316.4 and 293 mg/g, respectively) and brain (210.4 and 227 mg/g, respectively) tissues was observed, also a significant increase of dopamine levels (85.27 and 65.74 ng/g, respectively) and MT levels of heart tissues (108.5 and 70.52 mg/g, respectively) was observed.
Conclusion: S. marianum seeds extract and its oil fraction showed a protective effect against Î³-radiation-induced damage in heart and brain.
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