FORMULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES IN GROWTH HORMONE DELIVERY
Growth hormone treatment has many indications including the treatment of growth hormone deficiency, Praderâ€“Willi syndrome, chronic renal insufficiency, Turner syndrome, AIDS-related wasting, idiopathic short stature in children, and accumulation of fat which related in adults with lipodystrophy. Conventional therapy was achieved using intramuscular and subcutaneous injections. However, noncompliance was very high. To solve this; many studies have been attempted to prepare long-acting formulations and new to make derivatives of growth hormone and to use alternative routes of administration which term as noninvasive routes such as intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal and oral. New delivery systems were also used such as needle-free and auto-injector devices. In this review, different formulations, technologies, and routes of growth hormone delivery will be presented with the discussion of the principles of formulations and selected additives that were used to achieve improved growth hormone formulations.
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