ANTICLASTOGENICITY OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA STEM EXTRACT AGAINST ARSENIC GENOTOXICITY IN MUS MUSCULUS BONE MARROW ERYTHROCYTES USING MICRONUCLEUS ASSAY
Objective: The study was aimed to evaluate anticlastogenic potential of ethanolic extract of T. cordifolia stem against arsenic induced genotoxicity.
Methods: In the experiment twenty five animals were taken and divided into five groups and each group contain five animals. Group 01(control) and fed on tap water while the rest four (02, 03, 04, 05) groups were treated with 4 mg/kg body weight, per orally sodium arsenite for 8 w. Sodium arsenite pretreated groups 04 and 05 were followed by dose of 80 mg/kg body weight of 5% ethanolic solution of the test plant stem extract for a next 8 w. Bone marrow cells were collected in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution and smeared on a slide followed by double staining (Giemsa and Harris hematoxylin).
Results: High index of micronucleus frequency was observed in the groups 02 and 03 in contrast to group 01(control) while micronucleus frequency dramatically reduced in 04 and 05 groups. The mean number of micronucleus scored/2000 cell was found to be 2.6, 19.2, 20.2, 7 and 6.8 in group 01, 02, 03, 04, 05 respectively. Arsenic treated mice (03) showed remarkable increase (pâ‰¤0.001) in micronucleus frequency when compared to the corresponding values for control group (01). The percentage micronucleus frequency (mean and standard deviation) was markedly decreased (pâ‰¤ 0.019) when group 04 was compared with arsenic treated animals (group 02) and (pâ‰¤ 0.001) while group 05 was compared with arsenic treated animals (group 03) for their corresponding values.
Conclusion: The findings of this study have shown that T. cordifolia may be used as a preventive herbal drug against chemical or arsenical toxicity which leads to damage of genetic materials.
2. Jamalpur A, Satheesh HC. In vitro evaluation of genotoxic effect of euphorbia nivulia (Buch) on mice bone marrow cells using chromosomal aberration test and micro nucleus assay. Int J Pharma Res Rev 2014;3:28-33.
3. Kousar S, Javed M. Studies on induction of nuclear abnormalities in peripheral blood erythrocytes on fish exposed to copper. Turkish J Fisheries Aquatic Sci 2015;15:879-86.
4. Endoh D, Hashmoto N, Sato F, Kuwabara M. Micronucleus test in mice fed on irradiated diet. Japanese J Veterinary Res 1989;37:41-7.
5. Holland N, Bolognesi C, Bonassi S, Zeiger E, Fenech M. The micronucleus assay in human buccal cells as a tool for biomonitoring DNA damage: the HUMN project prospective on current status and knowledge gap. Mutat Res 2008;659:93-108.
6. Abrevaya XC, Carballo MA, Mudry Md. The bone marrow micronucleus test and metronidazole genotoxicity in different strains of mice. Genet Mol Biol 2007;30:1139-43.
7. Shahrim Z, Baharuddin PJNM, Yahya NA, Muhammad H. The in vivo rodents micronucleus assay of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila) extract. Trop Biomed 2008;23:214-9.
8. Ahmed MK, Hossain MA, Arif M, Perwin E, Khan MS, Islam MM. Assessing the genotoxic potential of arsenic in Tilapia using alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test. Chemosphere 2011;84:143-9.
9. Mandal BK, Suzuki KT. Arsenic round the world: a review. Talanta 2002;58:201-35.
10. Vahter M. Health effects of early life exposure to arsenic. Basic Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;102:204-11.
11. Palaniswamy R, Padma PR. Comparison of three herbal plants for best free radical scavenging activity. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2017;9:62-4.
12. Huy TB, Tuyet-Hanh TT, Johston R, Nguyen-Viet H. Assessing health risk due to exposure to arsenic in drinking water in hanam province vietnam. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014;11:7575-91.
13. Mittal J, Sharma MM, Batra A. T. cordifolia: a multipurpose medicinal plant-a review. J Med Plants Studies 2014;2:32-47.
14. Reddy NM, Reddy NR. Tinospora cordifolia chemical constituents and medicinal properties: a review. Scholar Acad J Pharm 2015;4:364-9.
15. Khatun H, Kundu S, Kazi MM, Ahmed M. Guduchi (T. cordifolia (wild)), A traditional Indian herbs and its medicinal importance-an ayurvedic approach with contemporary view. Int J Ayurvedic Herbal Med 2016;6:2260-7.
16. Lamfon NA. Cinnamomum aqueous extract ameliorates deltamethrin-induced hepatotoxicity in the albino rats. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2014;5:898-905.
17. Gazen RAA, Chandrashekariah SA. Pharmaceutical properties of Salvia hispanica (Chia) seeds: a review. J Crit Rev 2016;3:63-7.
18. Aqil F, Ahmed I, Mehmood Z. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of twelve traditionally used Indian medicinal plants. Turk J Biol 2006;30:177-83.
19. Schmid W. The micronucleus test. Mutation Res 1975;31:9-15.
20. Jain RA, Agrawal RC, Pandey A, Jain R. Evaluation of Argemone maxicana fruits extracts using micronucleus assay in mouse bone marrow cells. Bull Pharm Res 2011;1:22-4.
21. Sharma S, Sharma GK, Mehta A. Antimutagenic protection of Ficus benghalensi s extract against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in rat bone marrow. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5:84-6.
22. Verma R, Chaudhary HS, Agrawal RC. Evaluation of anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effect of Tinospora cordifolia in experimental animals. J Chem Pharm Res 2011;3:877-81.
23. Sumanth M, Choudary GN. Antimutagenic activity of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia. Int J Biotechnol Mol Biol Res 2010;1:42-6.
24. EL-Baz FK, Hassan AZ, ABD-Alla HI, Aly HF, Mahmoud H. Photochemical analysis assessment of antiproliferative and free radical scavenging activity of Morus alba and Morus rubra fruits. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:189-99.
25. Kale MA, Bindu SM, Khadkikar P. Role of antioxidants and nutrition in oxidative stress: a review. Int J Appl Pharm 2015;7:1-4.