APPLICATION OF NANOSILVER FOR PREVENTION OF RECURRENT DENTAL CARIES IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM XEROSTOMIA.
Objective: Prevention of recurrent caries due to decreased oral clearance and an abnormal microbial milieu in patients suffering from xerostomia poses a significant challenge in restorative dentistry. The present study was designed to control Gram negative bacilli and S. aureus which comprise a majority of such atypical populations by using nanosilver modified dental composite.
Methods: Silver nanoparticles were synthesised by the chemical reduction process using polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a stabilizer and ethylene glycol as the reducing agent. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV visible spectroscopy and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyser. Additionally a nanoparticle analyzer was used to determine the particle size and zeta potential of the nanosilver synthesized. The minimum inhibitory concentration of nanosilver for the test organisms was determined. Further, nanoparticle impregnated Anterior/ Posterior Nano-Hybrid composite was used to evaluate microbial biofilm inhibition.
Results: The average size and charge of the nanoparticles were confirmed to be 80 nm and -10mV respectively. Atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed the concentration of the nanoparticles in solution to be 998.5 ppm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of nanosilver for E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa was found to be 0.49 ppm and 0.975 ppm respectively. A slightly higher concentration of 1.95 ppm nanosilver was required to inhibit S. aureus. The minimum bactericidal concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration ratio was â‰¤4 which indicated that nanoparticles displayed a predominant bactericidal activity against the test organisms. The Nano-Hybrid composite studies demonstrated a 102to105 fold decrease in the viable count of bacteria as compared to the control.
Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the potential of silver nanoparticles, for controlling the formation of secondary dental caries due to pathogenic oropharyngeal colonization in patients suffering from xerostomia.
2. Fox PC, Van der Van PF, Sonies BC, Weiffenbach JM, Baum BJ. Xerostomia: evaluation of a symptom with increasing significance. J Am Dent Assoc 1985;110:510-25.
3. Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Bouquet JE, Saunders WB. Oral and maxilla-facial pathology 2nd Edition. Philadelphia;2002. p. 398-404.
4. Palmer LB, Albulak K, Fields S, Filkin AM, Simon S, Smaldone GC. Oral clearance and pathogenic oropharyngeal colonization in the elderly. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;164(3):464-8.
5. International Dental Federation. Working group 10 of the Commission on Oral health, research & epidemiology-Saliva itâ€™s role in health and disease. Int J Dentistry 1992;42(4, Suppl 2):287-304.
6. Saku S, Kotake H, Scougall Vilchis RJ, Ohashi S, Hotta M, Horiuchi S, et al. Antibacterial activity of composite resin with glass ionomer filler particles. Dent Mater J 2010;29(2):193-8.
7. Daugela P, Ozinuis R, Zekonis G. Antibacterial potential of contemporary dental luting cements. Stomatologija 2008;10(1):519-25.
8. Burgess R, Eidt A, Frankenburger R, Rosetritt M, Schweikl H, Handel G, et al. The anti-adherence activity and bactericidal property of micro particulate silver additives in composite resin materials. Arch Oral Biol 2009;54(6):595-601.
9. Xie D, Weng Y, Guo J, Zhao J, Gregory RL, Zheng. Preparation and evaluation of a novel glass ionomer cement with antibacterial functions. Dent Mater J 2011;27(5):487-96.
10. Ahn SJ, Lee SJ, Kook JK, Lim BS. Experimental antimicrobial orthodontic adhesives using nanofillers and silver nanoparticles. Dent Mater J 2009;25:209-13.
11. Magalhaes APR, Santos LB, Gonzaga LL, Estrela CR, Torres ME, BakuzisA, et al. Nanosilver applications in dental cements. ISRN Nanotechnol 2012.
12. Kasraei S, Sami L, Hendi S, Mohammad-Yousef AliKhani, Rezaei-Soufi L, KhamverdiZ. Antibacterial properties of composite resins incorporating silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Restor Dent Endod 2014;39(2):109â€“14.
13. Melo MAS, Guedes SSF, Xu HHK, RodriguesLLK. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management. Trends Biotechnol 2013;31(8):10.
14. Slistan-Grijalva A, Herrera-Urbina R, Rivas-Silva JF, Ãvalos-Borja M, CastillÃ³n-Barraza FF, Posada-Amarillas A. Assessment of growth of silver nanoparticles synthesized from an ethylene glycolâ€“silver nitrateâ€“polyvinylpyrrolidone solution. Physica Systems Nanostructures 2005;25(4):438-48.
15. Gorth DJ, Rand DM, Webster TJ. Silver nanoparticle toxicity in Drosophila: size does matter. Int J Nanomedicine 2011;6:343â€“50.
16. Sondi, Salopek-Sondi. Silver nanoparticles as antibacterial agents: a case study on E. coli as a model for Gram negative bacteria. J Colloid Interface Sci 2004;275:177-82.
17. Pal S, Tak YK, Song JM. Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticle depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Applied Environmental Microbiol 2007;73(6):1712-20.
18. Nandagopal S, Ganesh Kumar A, Dhanalakshmi DP, Prakash P. Bio-prospecting the antibacterial and anticancer activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized using terminalia chebula seed extract. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(2):368-73.
19. Priyaragini S, Sathishkumar SR, Bhaskararao KV. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using actinobacteria and evaluating its antimicrobial and cytotoxicity activity. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5(2):709-12.
20. Mori H, Hirasawa H, Oda S, Shiga H, Matsuda K, Nakamura M. Oral care reduces Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in ICU populations. Intensive Care Med 2006;32(2):230-6.
21. Mah TFC, Oâ€™Toole GA. Mechanisms of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents. Trends Microbiology 2001;9 (1):34-8.