PHARMACISTS' DISTRIBUTION IN NIGERIA; IMPLICATION IN THE PROVISION OF SAFE MEDICINES AND PHARMACEUTICAL CARE
Objective: The study appraised the distribution of pharmacists in the six (6) zones of Nigeria; determined the number of community pharmacies per population in each zone and in selected States; and assessed the implication of pharmacists' distribution in the provision of safe medicines and pharmaceutical care.
Methods: Register of pharmacists and pharmacies for 2013 and population estimate of 2013 were used to determine the percentage of pharmacists and number of community pharmacies per population in each zone. Interviews conducted for pharmacists were analyzed.
Results: About fifty-six percent (56.2%) of all registered pharmacists works in the community pharmacies. Distribution of community pharmacists shows Southwest (SW) 41.7%, Northcentral (NC) 20.6%, Southsouth (SS) 15.5%, Southeast (SE) 12.9%, Northwest (NW) 6.7% and Northeast (NE) 2.5%. In SW zone where pharmacists are highly concentrated, rural/urban distribution of community pharmacies revealed urban 89.9% and rural 10.1%, and a community pharmacy serviced 36,836 of the population. Inequitable distribution is due to low turn-out of graduate pharmacists, dearth of pharmacists abroad, poor remuneration, poor political will to employ pharmacists at the PHC level and poor amenities in the rural areas. This has led to the irrational use of medicines, non-professionals in practice, chaotic drug distribution system, poor access to safe medicines and negative effects on health indicators.
Conclusion: Improvement in the country economy, increasing number of faculties of pharmacy and improved facilities in the existing ones to increase turn-out of graduate pharmacists coupled with incentives for the establishment of rural community pharmacy will increase access to safe medicines and care in Nigeria.
2. http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s16450e/s16450e.pdf. [Last accessed on 29 Jun 2017]
3. Law MR, Dijkstra A, Douillard JA, Morgan SG. Geographic accessibility of community pharmacies in Ontario. Healthcare Policy 2011;6:36-45.
4. Lubinga SJ, Jenny AM, Larsen-Cooper E, Crawford J, Matemba C, Stergachis A, et al. Impact of pharmacy worker training and deployment on access to essential medicines and health outcomes in Malawi: protocol for a cluster quasi-experimental evaluation. Implement Sci 2014;9:156.
5. Hepler CD, Strand LM. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Am J Hosp Pharm 1990;47:533-43.
6. Nafiu A, Mahmud SG. The eminent threats of counterfeit drugs to quality health care delivery in Africa: Updates on consequences and way forward. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:82-6.
7. Commission to Implement Change in Pharmaceutical Education. A position paper Entry-level Education in Pharmacy: A Commitment to Change. American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy News. Special Report. Alexandria VA 1991. Available from: http://www.aacp.org/resources/ historical documents/Documents/COMMISSPOSPAPER3.pdf. [Last accessed on 29 Jun 2017]
8. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria; 1999. Available from: http://www.nigeria-law.org/Constitution Of The Federal RepublicOfNigeria.htm. [Last accessed on 03 Jun 2017]
9. Pharmacists Council of Nigeria. List of Registered Premises and Pharmacists. Pharmacists Council of Nigeria; 2013.
10. National Population Commission (NPopC). National Results: Population by State and Sex; 2006. Available from: http://www.population.gov.ng/index.php/state-population. [Last accessed on 29 Jun 2017]
11. Central Intelligence Agency. CIA World Factsheet; 2013. Available from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html. [Last accessed on Jun 3 2017]
12. International Pharmaceutical Federation. Global Pharmacy Workforce and Migration Report; 2006. Available from: www.fip.org/files/fip/HR/final report/Part1.pdf. [Last accessed on 29 Jun 2017]
13. World Health Organisation. The world health report: working together for health; 2006. Available from: http://www.who.int/whr/2006/en/. [Last accessed on 26 Apr 2017].
14. Mossialos E, Mrazek M, Walley T. Regulating Pharmaceuticals in Europe: striving for efficiency, equity and quality. Maidenhead (UK): McGraw-Hill International; 2004.
15. Ward K, Sanders D, Leng H, Pollock AM. Assessing equity in the geographical distribution of community pharmacies in South Africa in preparation for a national health insurance scheme. Bull World Health Organ 2014;92:482â€“9.
16. World Health Organisation. Monitoring the building blocks of health systems: a handbook of indicators and their measurement strategies; 2006. Available from: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/WHO_MBHSS_2010_full_web.pdf. [Last accessed on 26 Apr 2017]
17. Najjar T. Study on the distribution of community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Soc Adm Pharm 2003;20:72-6.
18. Kebriaeezadeh A, Eslamitabar SH, Khatibi M. Iranian pharmaceutical law and regulations, 2nd ed. Razi distribution; 2008. p. 199-206.
19. Gilbert L. Community pharmacy in South Africa: a changing profession in a society in transition. Health Place 1998;4:273-85.
20. Ministry of Health. Pakistan Pharmaceutical Country Profile. Government of Pakistan Islamabad; 2010. Available from: www.who.int/medicines/areas/coordination/pakistan.pdf. [Last accessed on 29 Jun 2017]
21. Management Sciences for Health: MDS-3: Managing Access to Medicines and Health Technologies. Arlington, VA: Management Sciences for Health; 2012. Available from: http://www.msh.org/sites/msh.org/files/mds3-jan2014.pdf. [Last accessed on 11 Sep 2014]
22. The government of Nigeria. Pharmacists Council of Nigeria: Inspection, Location, and Structure of Pharmaceutical Premises, Regulation; 2005. p. 79.
23. Volkerink B, de Bas P, van Gorp N, Philipsen NJ. Study of regulatory restrictions in the field of pharmacies: Main report. Rotterdam: Ecorys; 2007.
24. Karthikeyan G, Ranganayakulu D. Benefits of clinical pharmacists pharmaceutical care intervention to quality of patientâ€™s life and control hypertension. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:223-6.
25. Federal Ministry of Health. National Drug Distribution Guidelines (NDDG). 2nd ed. Federal Ministry of Health; 2012.