VARIATION IN PHENOLICS, FLAVONOIDS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF FRUIT DEVELOPMENT OF POUTERIA CAMPECHIANA (KUNTH) BAEHNI. AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY


A. V. Sunila, K. Murugan

Abstract


Objective: This work aimed to study the changes in the level of phenols and flavonoids during fruit development and its antioxidant potential Polyphenols at different ontological stages may help producers and food technologists to identify which cultivar and/or maturity stage are most adequate for their need.

Methods: Egg fruits were harvested and classified into six developmental stages based on week after pollination (WAP): stage I (4WAP); stage II (8 WAP); stage III (12WAP); stage IV (16WAP); stage V (20 WAP) and stage VI (24 WAP). The total phenolics and flavonoids of egg fruits at different developmental stages were investigated. The antioxidant capacities of ethanolic and aqueous extracts determined by different assays such as FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, superoxide anion, H2O2 scavenging assay.

Results: The total phenolic contents varied from 30.35 to 2.26 mg chlorogenic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW), and the total flavonoid contents ranged from 0.683 to 3.37 mg rutin equivalents/g DW. Total phenolics showed an initial increase and subsequently decreased during development. In contrast flavonoids increased from stage I to VI. Antioxidant assays showed varied patterns of inhibition.

   Conclusion: Significant correlations were observed between antioxidant capacities with             contents  of total phenols and flavonoids.


Keywords


Egg fruits; phenolic; flavonoid; antioxidant; development

| PDF | HTML |

References


Nakamura YS, Watanabe N, Kohno MH, Osawa T. Dihydrochalcones: evaluation as novel radical scavenging antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:3309–12.

Imeh U, Khokhar S. Distribution of conjugated and free phenols in fruits: antioxidant activity and cultivar variations. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:6301–6.

Alesiani D, Canini A, D’Abrosca B, DellaGreca M, Fiorentino A, Mastellone C, et al. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of phytochemicals from Quince (Cydonia vulgaris) peels. Food Chem 2010;118:199-207.

Gil MI, Tomas-Barberan F, Hess-Pierce B, Holcroft D, Kder A. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:4581-9.

Williams GM, Jeffrey AM. Oxidative DNA damage: endogenous and chemically induced. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2000;32:283–92.

Halliwell B. Establishing the significance and optimal intake of dietaryantioxidants: the biomarker concept. Nutr Rev 1999;57:104–13.

Mayer V, Treeter D, Santo Buelga C, Bauer H, Feucht W. Developmental changes in the phenol concentration of golden delicious apple fruits and leaves. Phytochem 1995;38:1151-5.

Chang CC, Yan MH, Wen HM, Chern JC. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal 2002;10:178–82.

Jing TY, Zhao XY. The improved pyrogallol method by using termination agent for superoxide dismutase measurement. Prog Biochem Biophys 1995;22:84–6.

Martin S, Kavitha PD, Rakhi MA, Kumar DG, Gopalakrishnan VK. Cytotoxic activity of Pergularia daemia against ovarian cancer cell lines OAW-42 and PA-1. J Nat Phram 2011;2:203-9.

Rajesh PM, Natvar PJ. In vitro antioxidant activity of coumarin compounds by DPPH, Super oxide and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. J Adv Pharm Edu Res 2011;1:52-68.

Jayalakshmia S, Mishraa A, Mishraa A, Singlab RK, Ghosha AK. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of five drugs of Trinpanchmool. Pharmacol 2011;2:1153-9.

Keser S, Celik S, Turkoglu S, Yilmaz O, Turkoglu I. Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging and total antioxidant activity of Hawthorn. Chem J 2012;2:9-12.

Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biol Med 1999;26:1231–7.

Rajic Z, Koncic ZM, Miloloza K, Perkovic I, Butula I, Bucar F, et al. Primaquine-NSAID twin drugs: synthesis, radical scavenging, antioxidant and Fe2+chelating activity. Acta Pharm 2010;60:325–37.

Towler MJ, Weathers PJ. Variations in key artemisinic and other metabolites throughout plant development in Artemisia annua L. for potential therapeutic use. Ind Crops Prod 2015;67:185–91.

Kulkarni AP, Aradhya SM. Chemical changes and antioxidant activity in pomegranate arils during fruit development. Food Chem 2005;93:319–24.

Shi GA, Guo XF, Fan BY, Bao MZ. Changes of antioxidative activity during florescence and flower senescence of peonies petal. Acta Hort Sin 2009;36:1685–90.

Wang SX, Liu JC, Jiao ZG, Zhang SN, Yang L. Changes of polyphenols during fruit development in apples. J Fruit Sci 2003;20:427–31.

Liu J, Jiao Z, Yang W, Zhang C, Liu H, Lv Z. Variation in phenolics, flavanoids, antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of peach blossoms at different developmental stages. Molecules 2015;20:20460–72.

Wei ZF, Jin S, Luo M, Pan YZ, Li TT, Qi XL, et al. Variation in contents of main active components and antioxidant activity in leaves of different pigeon pea cultivars during growth. J Agric Food Chem 2013;61:10002–9.

Besco E, Braccioli E, Vertuan S, Ziosi P, Brazzo F, Bruni R, et al. The use of photochemiluminescence for the measurement of the integral antioxidant capacity of baobab products. Food Chem 2007;102:1352–6.

Zhang L, Yang X, Zhang Y, Wang L, Zhang R. In vitro antioxidant properties of different parts of pomegranate flowers. Food Bioprod Process 2011;89:234–40.

Lim YY, Lim TT, Tee JJ. Antioxidant properties of several tropical fruits: a comparative study. Food Chem 2007;103:1003-8.

Sulaiman SF, Yusoff NA, Eldeen IM, Seow EM, Sajak AA, Supriatno, et al. Correlation between total phenolic and mineral contents with antioxidant activity of eight Malaysian bananas (Musa sp.). J Food Comp Anal 2011;24:1-10.

Toor RK, Savage GP. Antioxidant activity in different fractions of tomatoes. Food Res Int Toronto 2005;38:487-94.

Vergara-Valencia N, Granados-Pérez E, Agama-Acevedo E, Tovar J, Ruales J, Bello-Pérez LA. Fibre concentrate from mango fruit: characterization, associated antioxidant capacity and application as a bakery product ingredient. LWT-Food Sci Techol Amsterdam 2007;40:722-9.

Vieira FGK, Borges GSC, Copetti C, Gonzaga LV, Nunes EC, Fett R. Activity and contents of polyphenolic antioxidants in the whole fruit, flesh and peel of three apple cultivars. Arch Latinoam Nutr Caracas 2009;59:101-6.

Komes D, Belscak–Cvitanovic A, Horzic D, Rusak G, Likic S, Berendika M. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of some traditionally used medicinal plants affected by the extraction time and hydrolysis. Phytochem Anal 2011;22:172–80.

Faller ALK, Fialho E. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity in organic and conventional plant foods. J Food Comp Anal 2010;23:561–8.

Nijveldt J, Nood Ev, Van Hoorn DEC, Boelens PG, K Van Norren K, Van Leeuw PAM. Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:418-25.

De Souza KO, Moura CFH, De Brito ES, De Mir MRA. Antioxidant compounds and total antioxidant activity in fruits of Acerola from Cv. Flor Branca, Florida Sweet Brs 3661 Rev Bras Frutic Jaboticabal 2014;36:294-304.

Duda-Chodak A, Tarko T, Tuszyński T. Antioxidant activity of apples–an impact of maturity stage and fruit part. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2011;10:443-54.

Singh V, Guizani N, Essa MM, Hakkim FL, Rahman MS. Comparative analysis of total phenolics, flavonoid content and antioxidant profile of different date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.) from sultanate of Oman. Int Food Res J 2012;19:1063-70.

Balamurugan S. Fruit maturity phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Eugenia jambolana lam fruit. Int Lett Nat Sci 2014;8:41-4.

Chandra Mohan S, Balamurugan V, Thiripura Salini S, Rekha R. Metal ion chelating activity and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of medicinal plant Kalanchoe pinnata. J Chem Pharm Res 2012;4:197-202.

Nour V, Trandafir I, Ionica ME. Evolution of antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits during growth and ripening. J Appl Bot Food Qual 2014;87:97-103.

Krishnaveni M, Mirunalini S. Amla-The role of ayurvedic therapeutic herb in cancer. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2011;4:13-7.

Siju EN, JollySamu, Minil M, Rajalakshmi GR. Antioxidant activity of Myxopyrum smilacifolium Blume. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;3:2278-4357.

Mayer V, Treeter D, Santo Buelga C, Bauer H, Feucht W. Developmental changes in the phenol concentration of golden delicious apple fruits and leaves. Phytochemistry 1995;38:1151-55.

Chang CC, Yan MH, Wen HM, Chern JC. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal 2002;10:178–82. .

Jing, T.Y.; Zhao, X.Y. The improved pyrogallol method by using termination agent for superoxide dismutase measurement. Prog. Biochem. Biophys. 1995, 22, 84–86.

Martin S, Kavitha PD, Rakhi MA, Kumar DG, Gopalakrishnan VK. Cytotoxic activity of Pergularia daemia against ovarian cancer cell lines OAW-42 and PA-1. J Nat Phram 2011;2:203-9.

Rajesh PM, Natvar PJ. In vitro antioxidant activity of coumarin compounds by DPPH, Super oxide and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education and Research. 2011;1:52-68.

Jayalakshmia S, Mishraa A, Mishraa A, Singlab RK, Ghosha AK. In-Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Five Drugs of Trinpanchmool. Pharmacology 2011;2:1153-59.

Keser S, Celik S, Turkoglu S, Yilmaz O, Turkoglu I. Hydrogen Peroxide Radical Scavenging and Total Antioxidant Activity of Hawthorn. Chem J 2012;2:9-12.

Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biol Med 1999; 26:1231–37.

Rajić Z, Končić ZM, Miloloža K, Perković I, Butula I, Bucar F, Zorc B. Primaquine- NSAID twin drugs: Synthesis, radical scavenging, antioxidant and Fe2+ chelating activity. Acta Pharmaceut 2010;60:325–37.

Towler MJ, Weathers PJ. Variations in key artemisinic and other metabolites throughout plant development in Artemisia annua L. for potential therapeutic use. Ind Crop Prod 2015;67:185–91.

Kulkarni AP, Aradhya SM. Chemical changes and antioxidant activity in pomegranate arils during fruit development. Food Chem 2005;93:319–24.

Shi GA, Guo XF, Fan BY, Bao MZ. Changes of antioxidative activity during florescence and flower senescence of peonies petal. Acta Hort Sin 2009;36:1685–90.

Wang SX, Liu JC, Jiao ZG, Zhang SN, Yang L. Changes of polyphenols during fruit development in apples. J Fruit Sci 2003;20:427–31.

Liu J, Jiao Z, Yang W, Zhang C, Liu H, Lv Z. Variation in Phenolics, Flavanoids, Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity of Peach Blossoms at Different Developmental Stages. Molecules 2015;20:20460–72.

Wei ZF, Jin S, Luo M, Pan YZ, Li TT, Qi XL, Efferth T, Fu YJ, Zu YG.Variation in contents of main active components and antioxidantactivity in leaves of different pigeon pea cultivars during growth. J Agric Food Chem 2013;61:10002–09.

Besco E, Braccioli E, Vertuan S, Ziosi P, Brazzo F, Bruni R, Sacchetti G, Manfredini S. The use of photochemiluminescence for the measurement of the integral antioxidant capacity of baobab products. Food Chem. 2007;102:1352–56

Zhang L, Yang X, Zhang Y, Wang L, Zhang R. In vitro antioxidant properties of different parts of pomegranate flowers. Food Bioprod Process. 2011;89:234–40.

Lim YY, Lim TT, Tee JJ. Antioxidant properties of several tropical fruits: A comparative study. Food Chem 2007;103:1003-08.

Sulaiman SF, Yusoff NA, Eldeen IM, Seow EM, Sajak AA, Supriatno, Ooi KL. Correlation between total phenolic and mineral contents with antioxidant activity of eight Malaysian bananas (Musa sp.). J Food Comp Anal 2011;24:1-10.

Toor RK, Savage GP. Antioxidant activity in different fractions of tomatoes. Food Res Int Toronto. 2005;38(5):487-94.

Vergara-Valencia N, Granados-Pérez E, Agama-Acevedo E, Tovar J, Ruales J, Bello-Pérez LA. Fibre concentrate from mango fruit: Characterization, associated antioxidant capacity and application as a bakery product ingredient. LWT-Food Sci Techol Amsterdam 2007;40(4):722-29.

Vieira FGK, Borges GSC, Copetti C, Gonzaga LV, Nunes EC, Fett R. Activity and contents of polyphenolic antioxidants in the whole fruit, flesh and peel of three apple cultivars. Arch Latinoam Nutr Caracas 2009;59(1):101-06.

Komes D, Belščak–Cvitanović A, Horžić D, Rusak G, Likić S, Berendika M. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of some traditionally used medicinal plants affected by the extraction time and hydrolysis. Phytochem Anal 2011;22:172–80.

Faller ALK, Fialho E. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity in organic and conventional plant foods. J Food Comp Anal 2010;23;561–68.

Nijveldt J, Nood Ev, van Hoorn DEC, Boelens PG, K van Norren K, and van Leeuw PAM. Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. 2001; 74(4):418-25.

De Souza KO, Moura CFH , De Brito ES, De Mir M R A. Antioxidant Compounds and Total Antioxidant Activity In Fruits Of Acerola From Cv. Flor Branca, Florida Sweet And Brs 3661 Rev. Bras. Frutic., Jaboticabal – SP. 2014;36(2):294-304.

Duda-Chodak A, Tarko T, Tuszyński T. Antioxidant activity of apples – an impact of maturity stage and fruit part. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment. 2011; 10(4):443-54.

Singh V, Guizani N, Essa MM, Hakkim FL, Rahman MS. Comparative analysis of total phenolics, flavonoid content and antioxidant profile of different date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.) from Sultanate of Oman, Int Food Res J 2012;19(3):1063-70.

Balamurugan S. Fruit maturity phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Eugenia jambolana lam fruit. Int. Lett Nat Sci 2014; 8(1):41-44.

Chandra Mohan S, Balamurugan V, Thiripura Salini S, Rekha R. Metal ion chelating activity and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of medicinal plant Kalanchoe pinnata. J Chem Pharm res 2012; 4(1):197-202.

Nour V, Trandafir I, Ionica M E. Evolution of antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits during growth and ripening. J Appl Bot Food Qual 2014;87:97-103.




About this article

Title

VARIATION IN PHENOLICS, FLAVONOIDS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF FRUIT DEVELOPMENT OF POUTERIA CAMPECHIANA (KUNTH) BAEHNI. AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

Keywords

Egg fruits; phenolic; flavonoid; antioxidant; development

DOI

10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i11.20588

Date

01-11-2017

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Vol 9, Issue 11, 2017 Page: 70-75

Online ISSN

0975-1491

Statistics

35 Views | 10 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

A. V. Sunila
Research scholar, Department of Botany, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641046
India

K. Murugan
Department of Botany, University College, Trivandrum, Kerala, India


Article Tools



Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.