• Rodolfo Abarca Vargas Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos. Calle Iztaccihuatl Esq. Leñeros, Col. Volcanes, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP. 62350
  • Rigoberto Villanueva Guerrero Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos. Calle Iztaccihuatl Esq. Leñeros, Col. Volcanes, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP. 62350
  • Vera L. Petricevich Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos. Calle Iztaccihuatl Esq. Leñeros, Col. Volcanes, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP. 62350


Objective: Bougainvillea is a natural source with potential for clinical use, and this plant is routinely employed in traditional Medicine in Mexico. This study planned to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract partitioned of Bougainvillea x buttiana on acute and chronic inflammation.

Methods: The extract from Bougainvillea x buttiana partitioned originated two phases the aqueous (BxbREaq) and organic (BxbREop) phases were employed in anti-inflammatory activity. Acute inflammation was evaluated using the carrageenan model, whereas the chronic inflammation with anti-arthritic potential was explored with complete Freund´s adjuvant (CFA). Arthritis was caused by intradermal inoculation of CFA, and the extract was administered orally at different doses for 21 d. Paw oedema was determined at 7, 14 and 21 d, and serum from the mice were obtained to detect cytokine levels by ELISA and for biological assays.

Results: Phytochemistry studies revealed that these extracts contain alkaloids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and tannins. The results demonstrated that these extracts significantly inhibited mouse paw oedema for acute and chronic inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, BxbREop extracts markedly inhibited the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and remarkably increased IL-10 in serum from mice with control or arthritic groups.

Conclusion: The combined results suggest that BxbREop extract shows a potent effect in mice against CFA-induced arthritis for its ability to inhibit paw oedema and arthritic symptoms.

Keywords: Arthritis, Complete Freund´s adjuvant, Anti-arthritis activity


Download data is not yet available.


1. Hegen M, Keith JCJr., Collins M, Nickerson-Nutter CL. The utility of animal models for identification of potential therapeutics for rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2008;67:1505–15.
2. Murugananthan G, Mohan S. Anti-arthritic and immune modifying potential of Delonixelatabark extracts. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2013;4:1819–21.
3. Kingsley G, Panayi G, Lanchbury J. Immunotherapy of rheumatic diseases, practice and prospects. Immunol Today 1991;12:177–9.
4. Belavic J. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Nursing 2010;40:1-10.
5. Cotron RS, Mitchell RN. Basic Pathology, W. R. Saumders, New Delhi, India; 1999.
6. Montecucco F, Mach F. Common inflammatory mediators orchestrate pathophysiological processes in rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. Rheumatology 2009;48:11–22.
7. Ravindran V, Logan I, Bourke BE. Medical vs surgical treatment for the native joint in septic arthritis: a 6 y, single UK academic centre experience. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2009;48:1320-2.
8. Donahue KE, Gartlehner G, Jonas DE, Lux LT, Thieda P, Jonas BL, et al. Systematic review: comparative effectiveness and harms of disease-modifying medications for rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Intern Med 2008;15:124-34.
9. Henderson B, Pettipher ER, Higgs GA. Mediators of rheumatoid arthritis. Br Med Bull 1987;43:415–28.
10. Snedegard G. Mediators of vascular permeability in inflammation. Prog Appl Microcirc 1985;7:96–112.
11. Kinsella JE, Lokesh B. Dietary lipids, eicosanoids, and the immune system. Critical Care Medicine 1990;18:S94–S113.
12. Hong J, Bose M, Ju J. Modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by curcumin and related 𝛽-diketone derivatives: effects on cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenases and 5-lipoxygenase. Carcinogenesis 2005;5:1671-9.
13. Agarwal SK, Maier AL, Chibnik LB, Coblyn JS, Fossel A, Lee R, et al. Pattern of infliximab utilization in rheumatoid arthritis patients at an academic medical centre. Arthritis Rheum 2005;53:872-8.
14. McInnes IB, Schett G. Cytokines in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Nat Rev Immunol 2007;7:429-42.
15. Sakai R, Cho SK, Nanki T, Koike R, Watanabe K, Yamazaki H, et al. The risk of serious infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors decreased over time: a report from the registry of Japanese rheumatoid arthritis patients on biologics for long-term safety (REAL) database. Rheumatol Int 2009;4:1729-36.
16. Kobayashi T, Okada M, Ito S, Kobayashi D, Narita I, Murasawa A, Yoshie H. Assessment of interleukin-6 receptor inhibition therapy on the periodontal condition in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol 2014;85:57-67.
17. Kafaja S, Furst DE. Rheumatoid arthritis: are current research-based guidelines clinically relevant? J Rheumatol 2014; 41:1569-70.
18. Zhuang XM, Liu PX, Zhang YJ, Li CK, Li Y, Wang J, et al. Simultaneous determination of triptolide and its prodrug MC002 in dog blood by LC-MS/MS and its application in pharmacokinetic studies. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;150:131-7.
19. Kingsley G, Lanchbury J, Panayi G. Immunotherapy in rheumatic disease: an idea whose time has come or gone? Immunol Today 1996;17:9–12.
20. Badger AM, Lee JC. Advances in anti-arthritic therapeutics. Drug Discovery Today 1997;2:427–35.
21. Bang JS, Oh DH, Choi HM. Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects of piperine in human interleukin 1𝛽-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes and in rat arthritis models. Arthritis Res Ther 2009;11:R49.
22. Agrawal SS, Paridhavi M. Herbal Drugs Technology, Universities Press; 2007.
23. Baranwal VK, Irchhaiya R, Alok S. Anti-arthritic activity of some indigenous plants: a review. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2012;3:981–6.
24. Chitme RH, Patel PN. Anti-arthritis activity of Aristolochiabracteata extracts in experimental animals. Open Natural Products J 2009;2:6–15.
25. Arteaga Figueroa L, Barbosa Navarro L, Patino Vera M, Petricevich VL. Preliminary studies of the immunomodulator effect of the Bougainvillea xbuttiana extract in a mouse model. J Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2015. Doi:10.1155/2015/479412.
26. Alvarez Perez Gil A, Barbosa Navarro L, Patipo Vera M, Petricevich VL. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanolic extract of Bougainvillea xbuttiana. J Ethnopharmacol 2012;18:712-9.
27. Arteaga Figueroa L, Barbosa Navarro L, Patino Vera M, Petricevich VL. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoids contents, and cytotoxicity evaluation of Bougainvillea xbuttiana. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:1-6.
28. Abarca-Vargas R, Pena Malacara CF, Petricevich VL. Characterization of chemical compounds with antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in Bougainvillea x buttiana Holttum and Standl (var. Rose) extracts. Antioxidants (Basel) 2016;2pii:E45.
29. Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW. Carrageenin-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for anti-inflammatory drugs. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med: Soc Exp Biol Med 1962;111:544–7.
30. OECD. Test No. 425: Acute Oral Toxicity: Up-and-Down Procedure. Paris, France: OECD Publishing; 2008.
31. Newbould BB. Chemotherapy of arthritis induced in rats by mycobacterial adjuvant. Br J Pharmacol Chemother 1963; 21:127–36.
32. Ruff MR, Gifford GE. Purification and physicochemical characterization of rabbit tumor necrosis factor. J Immunol 1980;125:1671-7.
33. Schumacher JH, O´Garra A, Schrader P, van Kimmenade A, Bond MW, Mosmann TR, et al. Characterization of 4 monoclonal antibodies to mouse interleukin-5 and development of mouse and human IL-5 assay. J Immunol 1998;141:1576-81.
34. Chrubasik C, Black A, Muller-Ladner U, Chrubasik S. Impact of herbal medicines on physical impairment. Phytomedicine 2008;15:536-9.
35. Lin CT, Chen CJ, Lin TY, Tung JC, Wang SY. Antiinflammation activity of fruit essential oil from Cinnamomum insularimontanum hayata. Bioresour Technol 2008;99:8783–7.
36. Tung YT, Chua MT, Wang SY, Chang ST. Antiinflammation activities of essential oil and its constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomumosmophloeum) twigs. Bioresour Technol 2008;99:3908–13.
37. Yin Y, Gong FY, Wu XX. Anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressive effect of flavones isolated from Artemisiavestita. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;120:1–6.
38. Whitehouse MW. Rat polyarthritis: induction with adjuvants constituted with mycobacteria (and oils) from the environment. J Rheumatol 1982;9:494–501.
39. Gaston JSH, Life PF, Bailey LC, Bacon PA. In vitro responses to a 65-kilodalton mycobacterial protein by synovial T cells from inflammatory arthritis patients. J Immunol 1989;143:2494–500.
40. Gaston JSH, Life PF, Granfors K. Synovial T lymphocyte recognition of organisms that trigger reactive arthritis. Clin Exp Immunol 1989;76:348–53.
41. van Eden W, Holoshitz J, Nevo Z, Frenkel A, Klajman A, Cohen IR. Arthritis induced by a T-lymphocyte clone that responds to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to cartilage proteoglycans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1985;82:5117–20.
42. Quayle AJ, Wilson KB, Li SG. Peptide recognition, T cell receptor usage, and HLA restriction elements of human heat-shock protein (hsp) 60 and mycobacterial 65-kDa hsp reactive T cell clones from the rheumatoid synovial fluid. Eur J Immunol 1992;22:1315–22.
43. Mubashir K, Ghazanfar K, Ganai BA, Akbar S, Malik AH, Masood A. Scientific validation of Gentianakurroo Royle for anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potential. ISRN Inflammation; 2014. p. 5.
44. Silverstein FE, Faich G, Goldstein JL, Simon LS, Pincus T, Whelton A, et al. Gastrointestinal toxicity with celecoxib vs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. CLASS study: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 2000;284:1247-55.
45. Scanzello CR, Figgie MP, Nestor BJ, Goodman SM. Perioperative management of medications used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Hospital Special Surger 2006;2:141–7.
46. Gonzalez Gay MA, Gonzalez Juanatey C, Garcia Porrua C, Pineiro A, Testa A, Llorca J. High-grade C-reactive protein elevation correlates with accelerated atherogenesis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2005;32:1219–23.
47. Goldring SR, Gravallese EM. Mechanisms of bone loss in inflammatory arthritis: diagnosis and therapeutic implications. Arthritis Res 2000;2:33–7.
48. Wu W, Liu W. Anti-inflammatory property of biomaterial carotenoids production by Rhodobactersphaeroides WL-APD911. Adv Mat Res 2011;287:2028–31.
49. Zimmer AR, Leonardi B, Miron D, Schapoval E, Oliveira JR, Gosmann G. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Capsicum baccatum: from traditional use to scientific approach. J Ethnopharmacol 2012;139:228–33.
194 Views | 547 Downloads
How to Cite
Vargas, R. A., R. V. Guerrero, and V. L. Petricevich. “EVALUATION OF ANTI-ARTHRITIC POTENTIAL OF PARTITIONED EXTRACTS OF BOUGAINVILLEA X BUTTIANA (VAR. ROSE) HOLTTUM AND STANDL”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 10, no. 3, Mar. 2018, pp. 117-23, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2018v10i3.24015.
Original Article(s)