• Rashmi Mallya SVKM’s Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy, Gate No: 1 Mithibai College Campus, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai 400052, India
  • Milind J. Bhitre C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, SNDT Women’s University, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400049, India


Objective: To conduct pharmacognostic standardisation and chromatographic fingerprinting of leaves and fruits of Zanthoxylum rhetsa.

Methods: The macroscopic, microscopic and physicochemical evaluation of the crude drugs were conducted as per I. P and WHO guidelines. The chromatographic fingerprint was also developed for the leaves and fruits.

Results: The microscopic characteristics of leaves exhibited anomocytic stomata, fibrovascular tissue, lignfied pericyclic fibers and pitted xylem vessels. The fruits exhibited pericarp, oil cells, stone cells, xylem and endosperm. The physicochemical analysis was also conducted. The leaf and fruit powders complied with WHO prescribed limits for microbial load NMT 1× 105 CFU/ml and were found to be free from pathogenic organisms. The HPTLC fingerprint was established for methanol extract of leaves and fruits using Dichloromethane: chloroform: ethanol (4:4:1) as solvent and 10% methanolic sulphuric acid as spray reagent.

Conclusion: The present work provides referential information for the correct identification and standardisation of the plant.

Keywords: Zanthoxylum rhetsa, Fruit, Leaf, Microscopy, Fingerprint, Standardisation


Download data is not yet available.


1. Ekor M. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Front Pharmacol 2014;4:177.
2. Anonymous. The Wealth of India: Raw Materials and Industrial Products. Vol. XI. Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi; 1956. p. 22-3.
3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology, CRC Press: India; 2012. p. 3650.
4. Patiño LO, Prieto RJ, Cuca SL. Zanthoxylum genus as a potential source of bioactive compounds. In Prof. Iraj R. editor. Bioactive compounds in phytomedicine. Intech Press; 2012.
5. Supabphol R, Tangjitjareonkun J. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Zanthoxylum limonella (Rutaceae): a review. Trop J Pharm Res 2014;13:2119-30.
6. Sreelekha M, Anto NP, Anto RJ, Shafi PM. Cytotoxicity of 6-acetonyldihydro-chelerythrin, arnottianamide and 6-(2-hydoxypropyl)-dihydro chelerythrine towards human cancer cell lines. Indian J Chem 2014;53B: 647-51.
7. Rahman MM, Islam MA, Khondkar P, Gray AI. Alkaloids and lignans from Zanthoxylum budrunga (Rutaceae). Biochem Syst Ecol 2005;33:91-6.
8. Charoenying P, Laosinwattana C, Phuwiwat W, Lomratsiri J. Biological activities of Zanthoxylum limonella alston fruit extracts. KMITL Sci J 2008;8:12-5.
9. Islam MK, Biswas NN, Saha S, Hossain H, Jahan IA, Khan TA, et al. Antinociceptive and antioxidant activity of Zanthoxylum budrunga wall (Rutaceae) seeds. Sci World J 2014.
10. Anwarul I, Abu S, Md Anwar-Ul, GRM Astaq MK, M Helal UB, Shah AB. A flavonone from leaves of Zanthoxylum budrunga: its in vitro antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic evaluation. J Med Sci 2001;1:209-13.
11. Yadav AK, Tangpu V. Therapeutic efficacy of Zanthoxylum rhetsa DC extract against experimental Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) infections in rats. J Parasit Dis 2009;33:42-7.
12. Shaik G, Sujatha N, Mehar SK. Medicinal plants as a source of antibacterial agents to counter Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Appl Pharm Sci 2014;4:135-47.
13. Azad AK, Ohidul I, Rima E, Mohaiminul I, Chand S, Jeb-Un N, et al. Phytochemical screening and in vitro thrombolytic activity of methanolic leaf extract of Zanthoxylum rhetsa. J Pharm Sci Res 2015;7:302-4.
14. Yamunadevi M, Wesely EG, Johnson M. Chromatographic fingerprint studies on saponins of Aerva lanata (l.) juss. ex schultes by using HPTLC. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2018;4:52-7.
15. Pallavi Y, Hemalatha KPJ. Phytochemical studies and high-performance thin-layer chromatography analysis of Calamus rotang linn leaf extracts. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:269-75.
16. Wallis TE. Practical pharmacognosy. London; J. and A. Churchill Ltd; 1953. p. 139.
17. Anonymous. Indian Pharmacopoeia. Vol. 2. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, Controller of Publications: New Delhi; 1996.
18. Nagulan S, Kumar SR. Phytochemical, physicochemical and fluorescence analysis of leaf extract of Syzigium calophyllofolium Walp. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:276.
19. WHO. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992.
395 Views | 1051 Downloads
How to Cite
Mallya, R., and M. J. Bhitre. “PHARMACOGNOSTIC STANDARDISATION AND CHROMATOGRAPHIC FINGERPRINTING OF LEAVES AND FRUITS OF ZANTHOXYLUM RHETSA”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 10, no. 4, Apr. 2018, pp. 101-4, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2018v10i4.25089.
Original Article(s)