FOOD–DRUG INTERACTION AND THEIR CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: SELECTED INVESTIGATIONS
Food-drug interactions occur as a result of pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamics mechanisms. Pharmacokinetic mechanisms include what the body does to a drug while Pharmacodynamics mechanisms involve what drugs do to the body. Many types of food have been shown to influence metabolism and the absorption of drugs. Large numbers of drugs are produced and introduced yearly. The interaction between Food and drug may cause negative effects in the nutritional status of the patient as well as safety and efficacy of drug therapy. Due to the possibility of unexpected or poor outcomes, generally, food-drug interactions, in this case, should be avoided. As the good clinical practice, drugs taken by mouth must be absorbed either through the lining of the stomach or the small intestine. Reduction in the absorbance of a drug might be influenced by the presence of food in the digestive tract. The avoidance of such interactions could be possible if the drug is taken 1 hour before or 2 h after eating the food. The effects of several types of food such as milk or milk products, grapefruit and grapefruit juice, bananas, oranges, legumes, fermented meats and pickled fish and some nutrient elements such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and vitamin K are highlighted in this paper including their clinical implications.
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