• Ankita Dey Molecular Medicine and Nutrigenomics Research Laboratory, Department of Bio-Medical Laboratory Science and Management, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721102, West Bengal, India
  • Adrija Tripathy Molecular Medicine and Nutrigenomics Research Laboratory, Department of Bio-Medical Laboratory Science and Management, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721102, West Bengal, India
  • Debidas Ghosh Molecular Medicine and Nutrigenomics Research Laboratory, Department of Bio-Medical Laboratory Science and Management, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721102, West Bengal, India


Objective: The investigation has been conducted to find out the threshold dose of ethyl acetate fraction prepared from aqueous-methanol (40:60) extract of seed of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) from the dose dependent experiment by noting the remedial effects of the said fraction on different complications developed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat.

Methods: Diabetic condition was made by single intramascular injection of streptozotocin at a dose of 4 mg/0.1 ml citrate buffer/100 g body weight. Treatment was conducted at different doses for 28 d on diabetic rat. Efficacy of the fraction on fasting blood glucose (FBG) and serum insulin levels, activities of key carbohydrate metabolic enzymes such as hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase of hepatic and skeletomuscular tissue as well as antioxidative enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in connection with the levels of oxidative stress end products such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated diene (CD) in hepatic and renal tissue and gene expression of hexokinase-1, SOD, Bax, Bcl-2 in hepatic tissue were assessed.

Results: After different doses of fraction treatment to the diabetic animals; FBG, serum insulin levels and activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes i.e. hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphatase were rectified towards the control at the level of p<0.05. There is a significant (p<0.05) recovery in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and SOD in respect to the vehicle treated diabetic group. Oxidative stress end products such as CD and TBARS levels were increased significantly (p<0.05) in vehicle treated diabetic rats and was rectified significantly (p<0.05) after fraction treatment at the dose of 10 mg or 20 mg or 40 mg fraction treated group. Gene expression of hexokinase-1, superoxide dismutase, bax and bcl-2 was rectified towards vehicle treated control significantly at the level of p<0.05 after treatment of different doses of fractions to the diabetic animals.

Conclusion: The study indicates that the seeds of Myristica fragrans at the dose of 20 mg/100 g body weight possess most effective outcome to manage diabetic disorders in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Keywords: Antidiabetic, Streptozotocin, Antioxidant, Myristica fragrans, Fasting blood glucose, Serum insulin, and Gene expression


Download data is not yet available.


1. Noor A, Gunasekaran S, Manickam AS, Vijayalakshmi MA. Antidiabetic activity of aloe vera and histology of organs in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats. Curr Sci 2008;94:1070-5.
2. Vasundhara CCS, Gayatri DS. Antihyperlipidemic property of Boerhavia diffusa leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:173-6.
3. Hasan M, Al zohairy M, Mohieldein A. Association between haptoglobin polymorphism and DNA damage in type 2 diabetes. Curr Res J Biol Sci 2012;4:284-9.
4. Thilagam E, Chidambaram K, Mandal SC. Antidiabetic activity of Senna surattensis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:160-3.
5. Ahmed MF. Anti diabetic activity of Vinca rosea extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Int J Endocrinol 2010;10:1-6.
6. Sharma N, Kar A. Combined effects Gymnema sylvestre and glibenclamide on alloxan induced diabetic mice. Int J Appl Pharm 2014;6:11-4.
7. WHO (World Health Organization) WHO traditional medicine strategy 2014-2023, Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015. p. 2014-23.
8. Brunetti L, Kalabalik J. Management of type-2 diabetes mellitus in adults: focus on individualizing non-insulin therapies. Pharm Ther 2012;37:687-96.
9. Kim Y, Park CW. New therapeutic agents in diabetic nephropathy. Korean J Intern Med 2017;32:11-25.
10. Alhassan AJ, Lawal TA, Dangambo MA. Antidiabetic properties of thirteen local medicinal plants in nigeria, a review. World Res J Pharm Res 2017;6:2170-89.
11. Vidyasagar GM, Siddalinga Murthy SM. Medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Bellary district, Karnataka. IJTK 2013;12:747-51.
12. Amal Al-Aboudi, Fatma U Afifi. Plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Jordan: a review of scientific evidence. Pharm Biol 2011;49:221–39.
13. Joshi S, Jadhav V, Kadam V. Exotic fruits and vegetable food as nutritional supplement for diabetes, obesity and metabolic disease. Int J Chem Pharm Res 2018;10:51-5.
14. Latha PG, Sindhu PG, Suja SR, Geetha BS, Pushpangadan P, Rajasekharan S. Pharmacology and chemistry of Myristica fragrans houtt.-a review. J Spices Aromatic Crops 2005;14:94-101.
15. Chirathaworn C, Kongcharoensuntorn W, Dechdoungchan T, Lowanitchapat A, Sa-Nguanmoo P, Yong P. Myristica fragrans houtt methanolic extract induces apoptosis in a human leukemia cell line through SIRT1 mRNA downregulation. J Med Assoc Thai 2007;90:2422-8.
16. Yang S, Kyun NM, Jang JP, Kyung AK, Kim BY, Sung NJ, et al. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B by lignans from Myristica fragrans. Phytother Res 2006;20:680-2.
17. Panda DK, Ghosh D, Bhat B, Talwar SK, Jaggi M, Mukherjee R. Diabetic therapeutic effect of ethyl acetate fraction from the roots of Musa paradisiacal and seeds of Eugenia jambolana in streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rat. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2009;31:571-84.
18. Mallick C, Maiti R, Ghosh D. Comparative study on antihyperglycaemic andantihyperlipidemic effect of separate and composite extract of seed of Eugenia jambolana and root of Musa Paradisiaca in streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat. ITPT 2006;5:27-33.
19. Chatterjee K, Ali KM, Mallick C, Ghosh D. Antihyperglycaemic, antioxidative activities of a formulated polyherbal drug MTEC (Modified) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. J Med Plants Res 2009;3:468-80.
20. Pitchai D, Saravana BA, Modilal R. Antihyperglycemic effects of Phyllanthus extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Sci 2009;1:261-4.
21. Chou AC, Wilson JE. Carbohydrate metabolism. In: Wood WA, (ed.) Methods Enzymol. Vol. XIII. New York: Academic Press; 1975. p. 20-1.
22. Langdon RG. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from erythrocytes. In: Methods Enzymol, Wood WA. Ed. Vol. 9. Academic Press: New York; 1966. p. 126-31.
23. Swanson MA. Glucose-6-phosphatase from liver. In: Colowick SP, Kaplan NO. (eds.) Methods in Enzymology. Vol. II. Academic Press: New York; 1955. p. 541-3.
24. Beers RF, Sizer IW. Spectrophotometric method for measuring the breakdownof hydrogen peroxide by catalase. J Biol Chem 1952;195:133-40.
25. Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of superoxide anione in autooxidationof pyrogallol and a convenient assay of superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem 1974;47:469-74.
26. Okhawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxidation in animal tissues thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95:351-8.
27. Slater TI. Overview of methods used for detecting lipid peroxidation. Method Enzymol 1984;105:283-93.
28. Ghosh A, Jana K, Pakhira BP, Ghosh D. Antiapoptotic efficacy of seed of Eugenia jambolana on testicular germ cell in experimental diabetic rat: a genomic study. Andrologia 2015;48:282-92.
29. Sokal RR, Rohle FJ. Introduction to analysis of variance. In: RR Sokal, FJ Rohle. ed. Biometry. New York, WH Freeman and Company; 1997. p. 179-206.
30. Chauhan S, Nath N, Tule V. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Picrorhiza kurrooa rhizome extracts in diabetic rats. Ind J Clin Biochem 2008;23:238-42.
31. Mitra SK, Gopumadhavan S, Muralidhar TS, Anturlikar SD, Sujatha MB. Effect of a herbomineral preparation D-400 in STZ induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1996;54:41-6.
32. Prince PSM, Menon VP, Pari L. Hypoglycaemic activity of Syzygium cumini seeds: effect on lipid peroxidation in alloxan diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;61:1-7.
33. Chatterjee S, Niaz Z, Gautam S, Adhikari S, Variyar PS, Sharma A. Antioxidant activity of some phenolic constituents from green pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and fresh nutmeg mace (Myristica fragrans). Food Chem 2007;101:515–23.
34. Pari L, Saravanan G. Antioxidant effect of congent db, an herbal drug in alloxan induced diabetes mellitus. Comp Biochem Physiol 2002;131:19-25.
35. Mallick C, Chatterjee K, Guha BM, Ghosh D. Antihyperglycemic effects of separate and composite extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2007;4:362-7.
36. Ali KM, Bera TK, Mandal S, Barik BR, Ghosh D. Attenuation of diabetic disorders in experimentally induced diabetic rat by methanol extract of seed of Holarrhena antidysenterica. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2009;1:1205-11.
37. Mallick C, Bera TK, Ali KM, Chatterjee K, Ghosh D. Diabetes-induced testicular disorders vis-à-vis germ cell apoptosis in albino rat: remedial effect of hexane fraction of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica. J Health Sci 2010;56:1-14.
38. Mostafa MH, Sharma RK, Thornton J, Mascha E, Abdel-Hafez MA, Thomas AJ. Relationship between ROS production, apoptosis and DNA denaturation in spermatozoa from patients examined for infertility. Hum Reprod 2004;19:129–38.
39. De D, Chatterjee K, Ali KM, Mandal S, Barik B, Ghosh D. Antidiabetic and antioxidative effects of hydro-methanolic extract of sepals of Salmalia malabarica in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat. J Appl Biomed 2010;8:19-27.
170 Views | 471 Downloads
How to Cite
Dey, A., A. Tripathy, and D. Ghosh. “PROTECTING OUTCOME OF ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION OF AQUEOUS-METHANOL: 40:60 EXTRACT OF SEED OF MYRISTICA FRAGRANS HOUTT. IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RAT: A DOSE DEPENDENT STUDY”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 10, no. 9, Sept. 2018, pp. 54-61, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2018v10i9.25957.
Original Article(s)