PHYTOCHEMICALS, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIPROLIFERATIVE PROPERTIES OF FIVE MOSS SPECIES FROM SABAH, MALAYSIA
Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the phytochemical contents, the antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of 80% methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Sphagnumcuspidatumsubsp. subrecurvum, Sphagnumcuspidatulum, Sphagnumjunghuhniannum, Pogonatumcirratumsubsp. fuscatum and Pogonatumcirratumsubsp. macrophyllum.
Methods: The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were analysed using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods. The antioxidant properties were evaluated by three different assays, namely, ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging assays. MTT assay was used to study the antiproliferative properties against selected cancer cell lines.
Results: The results showed that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of S. cuspidatumsubsp. subrecurvumhas the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid content with the values of 5.42 Â± 1.95 mg gallic acid equivalent per g of dry sample and 2.12 Â± 0.02 mg catechin equivalent per g of dry sample, respectively. The 80% methanol extracts of S. junghuhnianum has the lowest total phenolic and total flavonoid content with the values of 0.80 Â± 0.12 mg gallic acid equivalent per g of dry sample and 0.03 Â± 0.02 mg catechin equivalent per g of dry sample, respectively. None of the extracts displayed IC50 value(concentration that inhibits 50% of free radical) at concentration tested. The 80% methanol extracts ofP. cirratum subsp. fuscatuminduced antiproliferative activityagainst CaOV3 (ovarian carcinoma) cell line whereas S. cuspidatulum induced antiproliferative activity againstHepG2 (liver cancer) cell line. None of the extracts induce antiproliferative activity against MDA-MB-231 (non-hormone dependent breast cancer) cell line.
Conclusion: Results obtained indicated that the selected mosses contained considerable amount of phenolics and flavonoids which contribute to antioxidant properties. P. cirratumsubsp. fuscastumand S. cuspidatulum have the potential to be used in pharmaceutical industry due to the ability of these two species to induceantiproliferative activity against CaOV3and HepG2 cancer cell lines.
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