CYTOTOXICITY EVALUATION OF CARBON NANOMATERIALS ON HUMAN CELL LINES USING MTT ASSAY

  • Bhikku Angoth Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal – 506 009, Telangana State, INDIA.
  • Harikiran Lingabathula Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal – 506 009, Telangana State, INDIA.
  • Durgaiah Gandamalla Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal – 506 009, Telangana State, INDIA.
  • Narsimha Reddy Yellu Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal – 506 009, Telangana State, INDIA.

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the in vitro toxicity of three carbon nano particles on five different cell lines.

Methods: Human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells, hepatocytes (Hep G2 cells), human embryonic kidney cells, HCT 116, and intestinal (P407 cells) cells were exposed to multi walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano fibres and carbon nano rods. The adverse effects of carbon nano particles were analyzed after 48 h incubation with different cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay method.

Results: Incubation of carbon nano particles with different cells produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of growth of the cells. The TC50 values (toxic concentration 50, i. e., concentration of particles inducing 50% cell mortality) of three nano particles was found to be in the range 28.29–46.35 µg/mL, and less than that of quartz (known toxic agent, 30.24-54.95 µg/mL).

Conclusion: The results indicating the greater cytotoxic effect of carbon nano particles than quartz particles.

 

Keywords: MWCNTs, CNFs, CNRs, Cytotoxicity, Cell lines.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Hoyt VW, Mason E. Nanotechnology: emerging health issues. J Chem Health Saf 2008;15:10–5.
2. Donaldson K, Stone V, Tran CL, Kreyling W, Borm PJA. Nanotoxicology. Occup Environ Med 2004;61:727–8.
3. Maynard AD, Warheit DB, Philbert MA. The new toxicology of sophisticated materials: nanotoxicology and beyond. Toxicol Sci 2011;120(1):109–291.
4. Li JG, Li WX, Xu JY, Cai XQ, Liu RL, Li YJ, et al. Comparative study of pathological lesions induced by multiwalled carbon nanotubes in lungs of mice by intratracheal instillation and inhalation. Environ Toxicol 2007;22:415–21.
5. Wong SKN, O’Connell M, Wisdom JA, Dai H. J Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005;102:1-16.
6. Oberdorster E. Manufactured nanomaterials (Fullurenes, C60) induced oxidative stress in the brain of juvenile largemouth bass. Environ Health Perspect 2004;112:1058-62.
7. Hurt RH, Monthioux M, Kane A. Cellular toxicity of carbon based nanomaterials. Carbon 2006;44:1027-120.
8. Ma-Hock L, Strauss V, Treumann S, Kuttler K, Wohlleben W, Hofmann T. Comparative inhalation toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low surface carbon black. Part Fibre Toxicol 2013;10:23-42.
9. Porter DW, Hubbs AF, Chen BT, McKinney W, Mercer RR, Wolfarth MG, et al. Acute pulmonary dose-responses to inhaled multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Nanotoxicol 2012;7:1179–94.
10. Sargent L, Porter DW, Lowry DT, Battelli LA, Siegrist K, Kashon ML, et al. Multiwalled carbon nanotube-induced lung tumors. Toxicol 2013;132:98-112.
11. Erdely A, Hulderman T, Salmen R, Liston A, Zeidler-Erdely PC, Schwegler-Berry D, et al. Cross-talk between lung and systemic circulation during carbon nanotube respiratory exposure. Potential biomarkers. Nano Lett 2009;9:36–43.
12. Erdely A, Liston A, Salmen-Muniz R, Hulderman T, Young SH, Zeidler-Erdely PC, et al. Identification of systemic markers from a pulmonary carbon nanotube exposure. J Occup Environ Med 2011;53:S80–6.
13. Stapleton PA, Minarchick VC, Cumpston AM, McKinney W, Chen BT, Sager TM, et al. Impairment of coronary arteriolar endothelium-dependent dilation after multi-walled carbon nanotube inhalation: a time-course study. Int J Mol Sci 2012;13:13781–803.
14. Urankar RN, Lust RM, Mann E, Katwa P, Wang X, Podila R, et al. Expansion of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury after instillation of three forms of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Part Fibre Toxicol 2012;9:38.
15. Murphy FA, Poland CA, Duffin R, Al-Jamal KT, Ali-Boucetta H, Nunes A, et al. Length-dependent retention of carbon nanotubes in the pleural space of mice initiates sustained inflammation and progressive fibrosis on the parietal pleura. Am J Pathol 2011;178(6):2587–600.
16. Donaldson K, Aitken R, Tran L, Stone V, Duffin R, Forrest Gat, et al. Carbon nanotubes: a review of their properties in relation to pulmonary toxicology and workplace safety. Toxicol Sci 2006;92:5-22.
17. Firme III CP, Bandaru PR. Toxicity issues in the application of carbon nanotubes to biological systems. Nanomed 2010;6:245-56.
18. Palomaki J, Valimaki E, Sund J, Vippola M, Clausen PA, Jensen KA, et al. Long, needle-like carbon nanotubes and asbestos activate the NLRP3 in flamma some through a similar mechanism. ACS Nano 2011;5(9):6861–70.
19. Fenoglio I, Aldieri E, Gazzano E, Cesano F, Colonna M, Scarano D, et al. Thickness of multiwalled carbon nanotubes affects their lung toxicity. Chem Res Toxicol 2012;25(1):74–82.
20. Qu GB, Bai YH, Zhang Y, Jia Q, Zhang WD, Yan B. The effect of multiwalled carbon nanotube agglomeration on their accumulation in and damage to organs in mice. Carbon N Y 2009;47(8):2060–9.
21. Hamilton RF, Buford M, Xiang C, Wu N, Holian A. NLRP3 in flamma some activation in murine alveolar macrophages and related lung pathology is associated with MWCNT nickel contamination. Inhal Toxicol 2012;24(14):995–1008.
22. Donaldson K, Murphy FA, Duffin R, Poland CA. Asbestos, carbon nanotubes and the pleural mesothelium: a review of the hypothesis regarding the role of long fibre retention in the parietal pleura, inflammation and mesothelioma. Part Fibre Toxicol 2010;7:5-25.
23. Nel A, Xia T, Madler L, Li N. Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel. Sci 2006;311:622–7.
24. Denizot F, Lang R. Rapid colorimetric assay for cell growth and survival: modifications to the tetrazolium dye procedure giving improved sensitivity and reliability. J Immunolog Meth 1986;89:271–7.
25. Robert R Mercer, James F Scabilloni1, Ann F Hubbs, Lori A Battelli, Walter McKinney, Sherri Friend, et al. Distribution and fibrotic response following inhalation exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Part Fibre Toxicol 2013;10:1-14.
26. Takagi A, Hirose A, Nishimura T, Fukumori N, Ogata A, Ohashi N, et al. Induction of mesothelioma in p53+/− mouse by intraperitoneal application of multi-wall carbon nanotube. J Toxicol Sci 2008;33(1):105–16.
27. Murphy FA, Poland CA, Duffin R, Al-Jamal KT, Ali-Boucetta H, Nunes A, et al. Length-dependent retention of carbon nanotubes in the pleural space of mice initiates sustained inflammation and progressive fibrosis on the parietal pleura. Am J Pathol 2011;178(6):2587–600.
28. Stueckle TA, Mirshra A, Derk R, Rojanasakul Y, Castranova V, Wang L. In vitro assessment of potential tumorigenicity of chronic SWCNT and MWCNT exposure to lung epithelium. Toxi¬col 2011;120:A1182.
29. Wang L, Luanpitpong S, Castranova V, Tse W, Lu Y, Pongrakhananon V, et al. Carbon nanotubes induce malignant transforma¬tion and tumorigenesis of human lung epithelial cells. Nano Lett 2011;11(7):2796–803.
30. Roberta Brayner. The toxicological impact of nanoparticles. Nanotoday 2008;3(1-2):48-55.
31. Shvedova AA, Kisin ER, Mercer R, Murray AR, Johnson VJ, Potapovich AI, et al. Unusual inflammatory and fibrogenic pulmonary responses to single-walled carbon nanotubes in mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2005;289(5):L698–L708.
32. Muller J, Huaux F, Moreau N, Misson P, Hei¬lier JF, Delos M, et al. Respiratory toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2005;207(3):221–31.
33. Murray AR, Kisin ER, Tkach AV, Yanamala N, Mercer R, Young SH, et al. Factoring in agglomeration of car¬bon nanotubes and nanofibers for better prediction of their toxicity versus asbestos. Part Fibre Toxicol 2012;9:1-10.
34. Anreddy RNR, Narsimha RY, Krishna DR, Himabindu V. In vitro cytotoxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes on human cell lines. Toxicol Environ Chem 2010;92(9):1697-703.
35. Patra HK, Bannered S, Chaudhuri U, Lahiri P, Dasgupta A. Cell selective response to gold nanoparticles. Nanomed 2007;3:111–9.
36. Penny N, Jensen KA, Satu S, Yahia K. Free radical scavenging and formation by multi-walled carbon nanotubes in cell free conditions and in human bronchial epithelial cells. Part Fibre Toxicol 2014;11(4):1-18.
37. Kisin ER, Murray AR, Sargent L, Lowry D, Chiri¬la M, Siegrist KJ, et al. Genotoxicity of carbon nanofibers: are they potentially more or less dangerous than carbon nanotubes or asbestos?. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2011;252(1):1–10.
Statistics
243 Views | 866 Downloads
How to Cite
Angoth, B., H. Lingabathula, D. Gandamalla, and N. R. Yellu. “CYTOTOXICITY EVALUATION OF CARBON NANOMATERIALS ON HUMAN CELL LINES USING MTT ASSAY”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 6, no. 10, 1, pp. 379-82, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/2859.
Section
Original Article(s)