• Supriyo Chakraborty Department of Biotechnology, Assam University, Silchar 788011, Assam, India


Ebola, Vaccine, Peptide epitopes, Immunogenicity, Hydrophilicity, Chou-Fasman conformation


Objective: The present study was carried out to identify the peptide epitopes with high immunogenicity in the surface proteins of four pathogenic Ebola virus (viz. Bundibugyo virus, Sudan virus, Tai Forest virus and Zaire Ebola virus) using modern reverse vaccinology approach through in silico analysis of proteome for use as Ebola vaccine candidates.

Methods: Hexapeptide epitopes based on maximum hydrophilicity were identified in eight surface proteins which were separated from a pool of 160 Ebola virus proteins using a covariant discriminant function and the Mahalanobis D2 statistic. Heptapeptide B cell epitopes were predicted from the surface proteins using the AbDesigner algorithm. Immunogenicity score of each identified epitope was estimated on the basis of hydropathy index and Chou-Fasman conformation.

Results: Four continuous (linear) hexapeptide epitopes namely RRKRRD (position 497-502), DEDDED (489-494), RRTRRE (497-502) and KTGKKG (221-226) with maximum hydrophilicity score were identified from different surface proteins for use as Ebola vaccine components. For use as B cell epitopes eight linear heptapeptide epitopes viz. PTSPPQD (418-424) and SHYEPPN (385-391) against Bundibugyo virus, PDYDDCH (309-315) and DYDDCHS (310-316) against Sudan virus, QPKCNPN (508-514) against Tai Forest virus and EYTYPDS (685-691), HLGLDDQ (365-371) and DQEKKIL (370-376) against Zaire Ebola virus with high immunogenicity were identified from different surface proteins of Ebola virus.

Conclusion: Four hexapeptide and eight heptapeptide epitopes can be loaded along with T cell or B cell signal peptides in virus like particle (vlp) or formulated as subunit vaccine by pharmaceutical industry to raise humoral immunity against Ebola virus in African population as well as in other human populations across the globe as therapeutics in the same way the Hepatitis B therapeutic vaccine based on multiple peptide-epitopes was designed nearly a decade ago.


Download data is not yet available.


Stewart AJ, Devlin PM. The history of the smallpox vaccine. J Infect 2006;52:329-34.

Barquet N, Domingo P. Smallpox: the triumph over the most terrible of the ministers of death. Ann Int Med 1997;127:635-42.

Strassburg MA. The global eradication of smallpox. Am J Infect Control 1982;10:53-9.

Kalkanidis M, Pietersz GA, Xiang SD, Mottram PL, Crimeen-Irwin B, Ardipradja K, et al. Methods for nano-particle based vaccine formulation and evaluation of their immunogenicity. Methods 2006;40:20-9.

Clerici M, Piconi S, Trabattoni D. Vaccine strategies for infectious diseases. Expert Opinion Investg Drugs 1999;8:95-106.

Amanna I, Slifka MK. Public fear of vaccination: separating fact from fiction. Viral Immunol 2005;18:307-15.

Harrison GB, Shakes TR, Robinson CM, Lawerence SB, Heath DD, Dempster RP, et al. Duration of immunity, efficacy and safety in sheep of a recombinant Taenia ovis vaccine formulated with saponin or selected adjuvants. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1999;70:161-72.

Kwon YJ, Standley SM, Goh SL, Frechet JM. Enhanced antigen presentation and immune-stimulation of dendritic cells using acid-degradable cationic nanoparticles. J Control Rel 2005;105:199-212.

Vogel FR. Immunologic adjuvants for modern vaccine formulations. Ann NY Acad Sci 1995;754:153-60.

Cedano J, Patrick A, Perez_Pons JA, Querol E. Relation between amino acid composition and cellular location of proteins. J Mol Biol 1997;266:594-600.

Hopp TP, Woods KR. Prediction of protein antigenic determinants from amino acid sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1981;78(6):3824-8.

Kolaskar AS, Tongaonkar PC. A semi-empirical method for prediction of antigenic determinants of protein antigens. FEBS 1990;276(1-2):172-4.

Pistikun T, Hoffert JD, Saeed F, Knepper MA. NHLBI-Ab Designer: an online tool for design of peptide-directed antibodies. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2012;302(1):154-64.

Ding FX, Wang F, Lu YM, Li K, Wang KH, He HW, et al. Multiepitope peptide-loaded virus-like particles as a vaccine against hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatol 2009;49(5):1492-502.

Ercolini AM, Machiels JP, Chen YC, Slansky JE, Giedlen M, Reilly RT. Identification and characterization of the immunodominant rat HER-2/neu MHC class I epitope presented by spontaneous mammary tumors from HER-2/neu-transgenic mice. J Immunol 2003;170:4273-80.

Wilson JN, Noakes DJ, Carman WF. The predicted pattern of emergence of vaccine-resistant hepatitis B: a cause for concern? Vaccine 1999;17:973-8.

He XW, Jiang L, Wang F, Xiao Z, Li J, Liu LS. Augmented humoral and cellular immune responses of a hepatitis B DNA vaccine adsorbed onto cationic microparticles. J Control Rel 2005;107:357-72.

Hunziker IP, Zurbriggen R, Glueck R, Engler OB, Reichen J, Dai WJ, et al. Perspectives: towards a peptide-based vaccine against hepatitis C virus. Mol Immunol 2001;38:475-84.

Kast WM, Roux L, Curren J, Blom JJ, Voordouw AC, Meloen RH, et al. Protection against lethal Sendai virus infection by in vivo priming of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes with an unbound peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1991;88:2283-7.

Schulz M, Zinkernagel RM, Hengartner H. Peptide-induced antiviral protection by cytotoxic T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1991;88:991-3.



How to Cite

Chakraborty, S. “EBOLA VACCINE: MULTIPLE PEPTIDE-EPITOPE LOADED VACCINE FORMULATION FROM PROTEOME USING REVERSE VACCINOLOGY APPROACH”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 6, no. 10, Oct. 2014, pp. 407-12, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/2873.



Original Article(s)