FABRICATION OF NANOFIBRES BY ELECTROSPINNING USING KERATIN FROM WASTE CHICKEN FEATHERS, PVA AND AgNPs
Objective: To prepare and characterise keratin from chicken feathers (CF), collected from the slaughter house, and to blend with poly vinly alcohol (PVA) and biosynthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and to convert into nanofibers by an elctrospinning process.
Methods: The extraction of keratin from chicken feathers was done by sodium m-bisulphite. The solution was subjected to ammonium sulphate precipitation to separate keratin. The nanoparticles was synthesised using tridax procumbens. The isolated keratin and PVA was mixed in the ration 0f 50:50 with 1 ml of biosynthesised nanoparticles was blended and made into nanofibres by electrospinning technique.
Results: The precipitated protein was analysed using FT-IR analysis confirming the presence of β-keratin in the sample isolated from chicken feathers and the concentration of keratin was estimated to be 1.85 g/ml. PVA solution with 4% w/v had the best film forming ability. The solution containing keratin, PVA and silver nanoparticles was prepared in various proportions. These solutions when subjected to electrospinning, fibrous network was observed in 50:50 (PVA: Keratin) ratio with 1 ml of synthesised silver nanoparticle solution. Hydrogen bonding between keratin and PVA indicated in the XRD analysis showed successful film forming of the nanofiber, the DSC analysis also showed similar results as the obtained peak was at 214 °C which is in between the characteristic heat degradation temperature of both the keratin and PVA. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed high thermal stability as the complete degradation of the nanofiber was observed at 420 °C. Incorporation of metal nanoparticles by herbal approach using tridax procumbens in the nanofibers provided the antimicrobial properties. The nanofibres obtained by electrospinning process appeared stable and continous for solutions containing no more than 50% wt of CF. The average diameter of the nanofibres increased as the CF content increased.
Conclusion: Keratin isolated from the waste chicken feathers impregnated with biosyntheised silver nanoparticles using tridax procumbens and PVA can be converted into nanofibers by electrospinning process. Thus, the biocomposite nano fibers are shown as a novel eco-friendly material that must be adequately applied in the development of green composites for the biomedical applications such as wound dressings.
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