A REVIEW: MECHANISTIC INSIGHTS INTO THE EFFECT OF THYROID DISORDERS ON ESTROGEN LEVEL AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY
Thyroid hormone serves as an indispensable component for the optimum functioning of various biological systems. They curb body’s metabolism, regulates the estrogen level, regulates bone turnover, essential for skeletal development and mineralization. Within the scope of knowledge, it is intimately familiar that thyroid disorders have widespread systemic manifestations, among which in hypothyroidism, even though elevated TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) may reduce estrogen level which in turn stimulates osteoclasts and thus cause osteoporosis, while hyperthyroidism accelerates bone turnover. Hypothyroidism does not directly interfere with the skeletal integrity, but treatment with levothyroxine for the suppression of TSH to bring the hypothyroid patient to euthyroid state for a long haul; lead to simultaneous reduction in bone mass and in (bone mineral density) BMD.
After the initial relevation of the correlation between thyroid disorders and osteoporosis in numerous studies have emphasized that both hypo and hyperthyroidism either directly or indirectly affects the bone mineral density or leads to the progression of osteoporosis.
Therefore the present study is aimed and so designed to review all the possible associations between them and the impact of thyroid disorders on estrogen level and bone mineral density.
The main findings of this review indicate that both excesses as well as deficiency of thyroid hormone can be potentially deleterious for bone tissue.
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