ASSESSMENT OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF NELUMBO NUCIFERA FRUIT ETHANOL EXTRACT

Analgesic Activity of Nelumbo nucifera Fruit

  • MUHAMMAD ALI RAJPUT Department of Pharmacology, Multan Medical and Dental College, Multan 66000, Pakistan
  • TABASSUM ZEHRA Department of Pharmacology, Liaquat National Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan
  • FIZZAH ALI Department of Pharmacology, Liaquat National Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan
  • GUNESH KUMAR Lecturer department of Pharmacology, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

Abstract

Objective: Utilization of herbal remedies rich in flavonoids and vitamins have increased significantly these days to treat various disorders, thus existing research work encircled to appraise the analgesic effect of Nelumbo nucifera fruit (NNF) for evaluating its traditional use pharmacologically in disorders which are associated with pain and inflammation.


Methods: Central analgesic activity in mice was assessed by tail flick test and the latency time i.e. the removal of tail from the stimulus was recorded. Similarly acetic acid induced writhing test was also conducted for the assessment of peripheral analgesic effect in mice and number of writhes was counted along with percent inhibition of writhes.


Results: In tail flick test the peek anti-nociceptive effect at all doses of fruit was observed at 90 min. However, the percentage of tail elongation time was highest at a dose of 200 mg/kg i.e. 82% at 90 min. Number of writhes was highly significantly reduced at all doses of NNF but maximum effects were observed at dose 200 mg/kg as compared to control, indicating 48.41 % inhibition of writhes.


Conclusion: NNF have exhibited strong analgesic effect in both animal models, which may be connected with the synergistic actions of flavonoids, saponins and tannins on arachidonic acid pathway inhibition. Hence NNF seems to have a great potential in disorders associated with pain but more experimental trials in this field are required to confirm these findings.

Keywords: Nelumbo nucifera, Tail flick test, Analgesic, Arachidonic acid

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Yesilada E, Ustun O, Sezik E, Takaishi Y, Ono Y, Honda G. Inhibitory effect of turkish folk remedies on inflammatory cytokines: interleukins-1-alpha, interleukins-1-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Ethnopharmacol 1997;58:59-73.
2. Corley DA, Kerlikowske K, Verma R, Buffler P. Protective association of aspirin/NSAIDS and esophageal cancer: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 2003;124:47-56.
3. Leonardo DCL, Franco A, Gustavo ATL, Luciano MA, Lius FMES, Gabriele PDS, et al. Toxicological assessments of aqueous extract of Eugenia jambolana stem bark. Toxicol Lett 2000;116:189-98.
4. Singh M, Kumar V, Singh I, Gauttam V, Kalia AN. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa linn leaves. Pharmacognosy 2010;2:64-7.
5. Agbaje EO, Adeneye AA, Daramola AO. Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Syzigium aromaticum L. Merr. and perry myrtaceae in rodents. Afr J Trad CAM 2009;6:3, 241-54.
6. Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee D, Maji AK, Rai S, Mukherjee PK, Saha K, et al. The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) phytochemical and therapeutic profile. J Pharm Pharmacol 2009;61:407-22.
7. Sridhar KR, Bhat R. Lotus: a potential nutraceutical source. J Agric Technol 2007;3:143–55.
8. Carlo FM, Masami Y, Yoshiaki K, Ganesh KA, Randeep Rakwal. Lotus–a source of food and medicine: current status and future perspectives in context of the seed proteomics. Int J Life Sci Technol 2013;7:1-5.
9. Indrayan AK, Sharma S, Durgapal D, Kumar N, Kumar M. Determination of nutritive value and analysis of mineral elements for some medicinally valued plants from Uttaranchal. Curr Sci 2005;89:1252-5.
10. Pal I, Dey P. A review on lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) seed. Int J Sci Res 2015;4:1659-66.
11. Rajput MA, Khan RA. Phytochemical screening, acute toxicity, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of Nelumbo nucifera fruit. Metab Brain Dis 2017;32:743-49.
12. Chopra RN, Chopra IC, Nayar SL. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 1996. p. 174.
13. Varshney CK, Rzoska J. Aquatic weeds in South East Asia. 1st ed. New Delhi: Springer; 1976. p. 39.
14. Rajput MA, Khan RA, Assad T. Anti-epileptic activity of Nelumbo nucifera fruit. Metab Brain Dis 2017;32:1883-7.
15. National Advisory Committee for Laboratory Animal Research. Guidelines on the care and use of animals for scientific purposes; 2004. p. 24.
16. National Institute of Health Guidelines for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical Research. Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. Prepublication draft. 8thed. The National Academies Press: Washington DC; 2010. p. 6, 47.
17. Hossain MS, Ahmed M, Islam A. Hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of different fractions of ethanolic extract of immature leaves of Mangifera indica Linn in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Pharm Sci Res 2010;1:132-8.
18. Assad T, Khan RA, Rajput MA. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum linn. seeds methanol extract on learning and memory. Metab Brain Dis 2018;33:1275–80.
19. Madhu A, Keerthi PHV, Singh J, Shivalinge GKP. To evaluate the antiepileptic activity of aqueous root extract of Hemidesmus indicus in rats. Arch Pharm Sci 2009;1:1, 43-7.
20. Khan RA, Rajput MA, Assad T. Effect of Nelumbo nucifera fruit on scopolamine-induced memory deficits and on motor coordination. Metab Brain Dis 2018;34:1, 87-92.
21. Ahmed S, Naved A, Khan RA, Siddiqui S. Analgesic activities of methanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit. Pharmacol Pharm 2015;6:547-53.
22. Bukhari IA, Khan RA, Gilani AH, Ahmed, Saeed SA. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet activities of the methanolic extract of Acacia modesta leaves. Inflammopharmacology 2010;18:187-96.
23. Luiz CDS, Mirtes C, Sigrid LJ, Mizuekirizawa M, Cecilia G, Jrotin GJ. Studies on medicinal plants of sri lanka, toxicity of some traditional medicinal herbs. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;24:205-11.
24. Dashti Rahmatabadi MH, Hejazian SH, Morshedi A, Rafati A. The analgesic effect of carum copticum extract and morphine on phasic pain in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;109:226-8.
25. Islam R, Sikder MAA, Khan RA, Ahmed M, Rashid MA. Membrane stabilizing, thrombolytic, analgesic, anti-diarrheal and CNS activities of Polyalthia longifolia. South Asian J Exp Biol 2014;4:104-9.
26. Koster R, Anderson M, De Beer EJ. Acetic acid for analgesic screening. Fed Proc 1959;18:412-7.
27. Walpole RE. Introduction of statistics. Third Edition. Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc., New York; 1982. p. 247-304.
28. Besson JM, Chaouch A. Peripheral and spinal mechanisms of nociception. Physiol Rev 1987;167:67-186.
29. Barsante MM, Roffe E, Yokoro CM, Tafuri WL, Souza DG, Pinho V, et al. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of atorvastatin in a rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Eur J Pharmacol 2005;516:282-9.
30. Brownlee G. Effect of deoxycortone and ascorbic acid on formaldehyde induced arthritis in normal and adrenalectomized rats. Lancet 1950;28:157-59.
31. Moloney RD, O’Mahony SM, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Stress-induced visceral pain: toward animal models of irritable bowel syndrome and associated comorbidities. Front Mol Psychiatry 2015;6:15.
32. Bentley GA, Newton SH, Starr J. Evidence for an action of morphine and enkephallins on sensory nerves endings in the mouse peritoneum. Br J Pharmacol 1981;73:325-32.
33. Bentley GA, Newton SH, Starr J. Studies on the anti-nociceptive action of ?-agonist drugs and their interaction with opioid mechanisms. Br J Pharmacol 1983;79:125-34.
34. Derardt R, Jougney S, Delvalcee F, Falhout M. Release of prostaglandin's e and f in an algogenic reaction and its Inhibition. Eur J Pharmacol 1980;51:17-24.
35. Levini JD, Lau W, Kwait G, Goetzl EJ. Leukotriene ?4 products hyperalgesia that is dependent on the polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Sciences 1984;225:743-5.
36. Dhara AK, Suba V, Sen T, Pal S, Nag CAA. Preliminary studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the methanolic fraction of the root extract of Tragia involucrate. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:265-8.
37. Evan FE, Andrew K. Acute pain following musculoskeletal injuries and orthopedic surgery. J Bone Joint Surgery 2004;86:1316-27.
38. Ahmadiani A, Fereidoni M, Semnanian S, Kamalinejad M, Saremi S. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Sambucusebulus rhizome extract in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;61:229-35.
39. Ahmadiani A, Hosseiny J, Semnanian S, Javan M, Saeedi F, Kamalinejad M, et al. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Eleagnusangusti folia fruit extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:287-92.
40. Chindo BA, Joseph AA, Edmond I, Ahmadu AA, Tarfa FD, Karniyus SG. Saponins are involved in the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Ficus platyphylla stem bark. Int J Biol Chem Sci 2010;4:415-23.
Statistics
146 Views | 93 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
RAJPUT, M. A., T. ZEHRA, F. ALI, and G. KUMAR. “ASSESSMENT OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF NELUMBO NUCIFERA FRUIT ETHANOL EXTRACT”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 11, no. 11, Nov. 2019, pp. 1-5, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2019.35455.
Section
Original Article(s)