INFLUENCE OF PHARMACEUTICAL CARE ACTIVITIES ON KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE (KAP) AMONG DIABETIC PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Keywords:Diabetes mellitus, Pharmaceutical care, Knowledge, Attitude and practice
Objective: To assess the influence of pharmaceutical care activities on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) among type 2 diabetic patients.
Methods: A total of about 301 patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were recruited from a tertiary care hospital. Patients were educated about their disease condition, lifestyle modifications and diet regimen to be followed and were given instructions for improving medication adherence. In the initial session, no pharmaceutical care was given, in the second session patient counseling was given verbally and in the last session patient counseling was given both verbally and non-verbally by means of pamphlet distribution. KAP questionnaire and glycemic levels (glycated hemoglobin, fasting blood sugar and post-prandial blood sugar) of participants were obtained at baseline and at follow up.
Results: The baseline values of FBS in patients before intervention was found to be 176.5±74.46 mg/dL and it was reduced to 140.7±43.9 mg/dL after 3 mo. Henceforth, there was also an improvement in the PPBS values which was found to be 254±77.3 mg/dL at the baseline and was 212.9±54.2 mg/dL after intervention. The baseline values of HbA1c is 8.144±1.727% and after intervention, value reduced to about 7.173±2.768%. After the intervention, it was found to be that 30%, 16% and 12% reduction in FBS, PPBS and HbA1c values and the P-value (<0.0001) found to be statistically significant. KAP scores also found to be improved after the intervention and statistically significant. The results clearly indicate that through proper guidance and educating the patients by the pharmacist is beneficial in managing the glycemic levels and reduce further complications.
Conclusion: The study concluded that the pharmaceutical care by the pharmacist is highly essentially and useful for the patients to manage the glycemic index and prevent further diabetic complications.
Fox CS, Golden CH, Anderson C, Bray GA, Burke LE, Deboer LH, et al. Update on prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in light of recent evidence: a scientific statement from the American heart association and the American diabetic association. Diabetes Care 2015;39:1777-803.
Sevith Rao. Cardiac disease among South Asians: a silent epidemic. Indian Heart Association. Available from: URL: http://indian heartassociation.org/why-indians-why-south-asians/overview/ [Last accessed on 13 Aug 2015]
Lakhtakia R. The history of diabetes mellitus. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2013;13:368-70.
Parthasarathi G, Karin Nyfort-Hansen, Milap Nahata. (eds). A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacy Practice; Essential Concepts and Skills. India: Universities Press; 2004. p. 10, 43-45, 54-71, 73, 236, 49, 67.
Mohammadi S, Karim NA, Talib RA, Amani R. Knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes among type 2 diabetic patients in Iran: a cross-sectional study. Sci J Public Health 2015;3:520-4.
Sakurai M, Nakamura K, Miura K, Takamura T, Yoshita K, Sasaki S, et al. Family history of diabetes, lifestyle factors, and the 7‐year incident risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle‐aged Japanese men and women. J Diabetes Invest 2013;4:261–8.
Baynes HW. Classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Metab 2015;6:54-43.
Hackett EA, Thomas SM. Diabetes mellitus. In: Walker R, Whittlesea C. (eds.) Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. Fifth edition. London: Churchil Livingstone; 2010. p. 629-55.
Patni KN, Shah JV, Deshpande SS. Improvement in glycemic control of diabetic patients provided with counseling by clinical pharmacist–a review. J Pharm Sci Biosci Res 2015;5:370-8.
Gautam A, Bhatta DN, Aryal UR. Diabetes-related health knowledge, attitude and practice among diabetic patients in Nepal. BMC Endocr Disord 2015;15:25:1-8.
Renuga E, Ramakrishnan SR, Vanitha Rani N, Thennarasu P, Kannan G. Impact of continuous patient counseling on knowledge, attitude and practices and medication adherence of diabetic patients attending outpatient pharmacy services. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:364-9.
Krishnan D, Gururajan R, Baig AH, Chennakesavan SK, Wickramasingh N. The impact of diet counseling on type 2 diabetes mellitus: An Indian case study. J Diabetes Metab 2015;6:1-10.
Chen L, Pei JH, Kuang J. Effect of lifestyle intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Metabolism 2015;64:338–47.
Lin X, Zhang X, Guo J. Effects of exercise training on cardio-respiratory fitness and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Heart Assoc 2015;4:4.
Ajin K George, Jewel VG, Meenu Manohar, Sarath P Kumar, Muneerudeen J. Impact of patient counseling on knowledge, attitude, practices of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:293-6.