• ANDREANYTA MELIALA Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Farmako Sekip Utara, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
  • YUSTINA ANDWI ARI SUMIWI Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Farmako Sekip Utara, Sleman, Yogyakarta 5528, Indonesia
  • PARAMITA NARWIDINA Clinical Nutrition Research Group, Yogyakarta 55133, Indonesia
  • SRI LESTARI SULISTYO RINI Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Farmako Sekip Utara, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
  • WIDIASTUTI SETYANINGSIH Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Flora, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia


Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antidepressant effects of banana peel flakes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Methods: Twenty-five male Wistar rats were classified into five groups with different treatments. Groups I to IV were diabetic rats model groups that consumed only standard diet, standard diet containing 5%, 10%, and 20% of banana peel flakes, respectively. While group V was a healthy control group fed a standard diet. Immunohistochemistry staining was measured to examine serotonin expression in the colon and pancreas.

Results: The diabetic rats treated with 20% banana peel flakes had a lower blood glucose concentration (p<0.05) compared with diabetic control and showed a shorter duration of immobility time (p<0.05) than the healthy control. Additionally, compared with diabetic control, the diabetic rats treated with 5% banana peel flakes showed higher serotonin expression (p<0.05) in the colon. In contrast, serotonin expression in the pancreas did not show any significant difference (p>0.05).

Conclusion: The present study disclosed that the banana peel flakes provided an antidepressant effect in the diabetic rats model, which might occur through the mechanism of controlling blood glucose concentration.

Keywords: Banana peel, Antidiabetic, Antidepressive, Dietary fiber, Serotonin


Download data is not yet available.


1. Anderson R, Freedland K, Clouse R. The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2001;24:1069–78.
2. Ali N, Jyotsna V, Kumar N. Prevalence of depression among type 2 diabetes compared to healthy non-diabetic controls. J Assoc Physicians India 2013;61:619–21.
3. Roy T, Lloyd C. Epidemiology of depression and diabetes: a systematic review. J Affect Disord 2012;142:S8-21.
4. Oxenkrug GF. Metabolic syndrome, age-associated neuroendocrine disorders, and dysregulation of tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism. Ann NY Acad Sci 2010;1199:1–14.
5. Banerjee M, Saxena M. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) family of cytokines: role in type 2 diabetes. Clin Chim Acta 2012;413:1163–70.
6. Shajib MS, Baranov A, Khan WI. Diverse effects of gut-derived serotonin in intestinal inflammation. Chem Neurosc 2017;8:920–31.
7. Costedio MM, Hyman N, Mawe GM, et al. Serotonin and its role in the colonic function and in gastrointestinal disorders. Dis Colon Rectum 2014;50:376-88.
8. Waclawikov B, Aidy S El. Role of microbiota and tryptophan metabolites in the remote effect of intestinal inflammation on brain and depression. Pharmaceuticals 2018;25:1-17.
9. Badawy AA. Modulation of tryptophan and serotonin metabolism as a biochemical basis of the behavioral effects of use and withdrawal of androgenic-anabolic steroids and other image and performance-enhancing agents. Int J Tryptophan Res 2018;11:1–16.
10. Richards P, Pais R, Habib A. High-fat diet impairs the function of glucagon-like peptide-1, producing L-cells. Peptides 2016;77:21–7.
11. Keszthelyi D, Troost F, Jonkers D. Does acute tryptophan depletion affect peripheral serotonin metabolism in the intestine? Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:603–8.
12. Dehhaghi M, Kazemi H, Panahi S. Microorganisms, tryptophan metabolism, and kynurenine pathway: a complex interconnected loop influencing human health status. Int J Tryptophan Res 2019;12:1–10.
13. Clarke G, Grenham SPS. The microbiome-gut-brain axis during early life regulates the hippocampal serotonergic system in a sex-dependent manner. Mol Psychiatry 2013;18:666-73.
14. Kwon YH, Wang H, Denou E. Modulation of gut microbiota composition by serotonin susceptibility to colitis. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;7:709–28.
15. Cani PD, Osto M, Geurts L. Involvement of gut microbiota in the development of low-grade inflammation and type 2 diabetes associated with obesity. Gut Microbes 2012;3:279–88.
16. Nagarajaiah SB, Prakash J. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of peels from three varieties of banana. Asian J Food Agro-Industry 2011;4:31–46.
17. Lewis D, Shaw G. A natural flavonoid and synthetic analogues protect the gastric mucosa from aspirin-induced erosion. J Nutr Biochem 2001;12:95–100.
18. Kusuma SF, Mita SR, Firdayani. Study on the antibacterial activity of fruit extracts of klutuk banana (musa balbisiana colla) against Shigella dysenteriae atcc 13313. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:220–3.
19. Someya S, Yoshiki Y, Okubo K. Antioxidant compounds from bananas (Musa cavendish). Food Chem 2002;79:351–4.
20. Gopalan G, Prabha B, Joe A. Screening of Musa balbisiana colla. Seeds for antidiabetic properties and isolation of apiforol, a potential lead, with antidiabetic activity. J Sci Food Agric 2018;99:1–31.
21. Borah M, Das S. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant activities of musa balbisiana colla. in type 1 diabetic rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2017;49:71–6.
22. Purabi D, Ananya K, Daisy S. A review on Musa Balbisiana colla. Int J Pharm Sci Invent 2018;7:14–7.
23. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. In: AOAC. Gaithersburg MD, USA; 2005. p. 18.
24. Alam S, Ehsan SD. Antidepressant-like activity of banana peel extracts in mice. Tan pei tee and halijah hassan. Am J Med 2011;2:59–64.
25. Chand P, Garg A, Singla V. Evaluation of an immunohistochemical profile of breast cancer for prognostics and therapeutic use. Niger J Surg 2018;24:100–6.
26. Navghare V, Shashikant D. Suppression of type-II diabetes with dyslipidemia and nephropathy by peels of Musa cavendish fruit. Ind J Clin Biochem 2016;31:380–9.
27. Saad EA, Hassanien MM, El-hagrasy MA, Radwan KH. Antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities and protective effects of punica granatum peels powder against pancreatic and hepatic tissues injuries in streptozotocin-induced iddm in rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:397-402.
28. Andallu B, Varadacharyulu NC. Antioxidant role of mulberry (Morus indica L. cv. Anantha) leaves in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Clin Chim Acta 2003;338:3–10.
29. Jain D, Bansal M, Dalvi R. Protective effect of diosmin against diabetic neuropathy in experimental rats. J Integr Med 2014;12:35–41.
30. Balbi MDA, Crivellenti LC, Cristina D. The relationship of flavonoid intake during pregnancy with excess body weight and gestational diabetes mellitus. Arch Endocrinol Metab 2019;63:241–9.
31. Singh A, Singh S. Dietary fiber content of Indian diets. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:58–61.
32. Gestel G, Besançon P. Comparative evaluation of the effects of two differents forms of dietary fibre (Rice bran vs wheat bran) on rat colonic mucosa and fæcal micro-flora. Ann Nutr Metab 1994;38:249–56.
33. Vries J De, Birkett A, Hulshof T. Effects of cereal, fruit and vegetable fibers on human fecal weight and transit time: a comprehensive review of intervention trials. Nutrients 2016;8:1–10.
34. Everard A, Geurts L, Caesar R. Intestinal epithelial MyD88 is a sensor switching host metabolism towards obesity according to nutritional status. Nat Commun 2014;5:1-12.
35. Ferraris RP, Vinnakota RR. Intestinal nutrient transport in genetically obese mice. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:540–6.
36. Mao J, Hu X, Xiao Y, Yang C, Ding Y, Hou N, et al. Overnutrition stimulates intestinal epithelium proliferation through beta-catenin signaling in obese mice. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2013;62:3736-46.
37. Mahore JG, Shirolkar SV. Investigation of the effect of ripening and processing on the prebiotic potential of banana. J Young Pharm 2018;10:10–4.
38. Topping DL, Clifton PM. Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and non-starch polysaccharides. Physiol Rev 2001;81:1031-64.
39. Ble Castillo JL, Juarez Rojop IE, Tovilla Zarate CA. Acute consumption of resistant starch reduces food intake but has no effect on appetite ratings in healthy subjects. Nutrients 2017;9:1–12.
40. Bindels L, Walter J, Ramer Tait A. Resistant starches for the management of metabolic diseases. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2015;18:559–65.
41. Catena Dell’Osso M, Rotella F, Dell’Osso A. Inflammation, serotonin and major depression. Curr Drug Targets 2013;14:571–7.
42. Gal E, Sherman A. L-Kynurenine: its synthesis and possible regulatory function in brain. Neurochem Res 1980;5:223–9.
43. Gkogkolou P, Böhm M. Advanced glycation end products key players in skin aging? Dermatoendocrinol 2012;4:3:259–70.
44. Kamba A, Daimon M, Murakami H. Association between higher serum cortisol levels and decreased insulin secretion in a general population. PLoS One 2016;11:1–10.
45. Adedayo BC, Oboh G, Oyeleye SI. Antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of three banana cultivars (Musa spp.). Scientifica 2016:1–7. 2016/8391398.
46. Fidrianny I, Rizki Kiki R, Insanu M. In vitro antioxidant activities from various extracts of banana peels using abts, dpph assays and correlation with phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid content. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:299–303.
47. Samad N, Ullah N, Ayaz MM. Banana fruit pulp and peel involved in antianxiety and antidepressant effects while invigorate memory performance in male mice: possible role of potential antioxidants. Pak J Pharm Sci 2017;30:989–95.
48. Debjit Bhowmik KP, Sampath Kumar, M Umadevi. Traditional and medicinal uses of banana. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2012;1:51–63.
49. Martin AM, Young RL, Leong L. The diverse metabolic roles of peripheral serotonin. Endocrinology 2017;158:1049–63.
50. Crane JD, Palanivel R, Mottillo EP. Inhibiting peripheral serotonin synthesis reduces obesity and metabolic dysfunction by promoting brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Nat Med 2014;21:1–9.
51. Bodinham C, Smith L, Thomas E. Efficacy of increased resistant starch consumption in human type 2 diabetes. Endocr Connect 2014;3:75–84.
52. Takahashi T, Yano M, Minami J. Sarpogrelate hydrochloride, a serotonin2A receptor antagonist, reduces albuminuria in diabetic patients with early-stage diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Res Clin Prac 2002;58:123–9.
53. Malyszko J, T Urano, R Knofler. Daily variations of platelet aggregation in relation to blood and plasma serotonin in diabetes. Thromb Res 1994;75:569–76.
54. Adeghate E, Ponery AS, Pallot D. Distribution of serotonin and its effect on insulin and glucagon secretion in normal and diabetic pancreatic tissues in rat. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 1999;20:315–22.
55. Marco J, Hedo JA, Villanueva ML. Inhibition of glucagon release by serotonin in mouse pancreatic islets. Diabetologia 1977;13:585–8.
56. Rodriguez Ambriz, Agama Acevedo I, Etovar J. Characterization of a fiber-rich powder prepared by liquefaction of unripe banana flour. Food Chem 2008;4:1515–21.
57. Kim W, Egan JM. The role of incretins in glucose homeostasis and diabetes treatment. Pharmacol Rev 2008;60:470–512.
58. Ramracheya R, Chapman C, Chibalina M. GLP-1 suppresses glucagon secretion in human pancreatic alpha-cells by inhibition of P/Q-type Ca 2+channels. Physiol Rep 2018;6:1–17.
116 Views | 143 Downloads
How to Cite
MELIALA, A., Y. A. A. SUMIWI, P. NARWIDINA, S. L. S. RINI, and W. SETYANINGSIH. “BANANA PEEL FLAKES ALLEVIATE BLOOD GLUCOSE AND STRESS IN A DOSE-DEPENDENT MANNER”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 12, no. 8, Aug. 2020, pp. 75-81, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2020v12i8.37659.
Original Article(s)