HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC STEM BARK EXTRACT OF KNEMA ATTENUATA (HOO K. F. AND THOMSON) WARB
Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic stem bark extract (ESBE) of Knema attenuata against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats using both in vivo and in vitro models.
Methods: Animals were treated orally with ESBE (250 mg kg-1 and 500 mg kg-1) once daily for 6 d and CCl4 on the 4th d. On the 7th d, animals were sacrificed and the blood samples were collected to measure the serum levels of biochemical parameters, whereas the liver homogenates were utilized for estimating the antioxidant defense. The hepatoprotective efficacy of the extract was further ensured in vitro using human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line against CCl4 induced toxicity. The cell line viability was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
Results: ESBE effectively reduced (p<0.001) the elevated serum levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) when compared to the toxicant control group. ESBE 500 mg kg-1significantly raised the antioxidant defense (p<0.0001) by reducing the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and enhancing hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) level in comparison to the CCl4 control group. The in vitro effect was investigated using CCl4 exposed HepG2 cells. Pretreatment with ESBE showed a dose-dependent increase in percentage cell viability ranged between 44 to 57% at 12.5-100 μg ml-1concentrations (p<0.001, when compared to the control cells).
Conclusion: Present study confirms the hepatoprotective activity of the stem bark extract of K. attenuata against CCl4‑induced liver damage.
2. Anandan R, Jayakar B, Karar B, Babuji S, Manavalan R, Kumar RS. Effect of ethanol extract of flowers of Vitex trifolia linn. on CCl4 induced hepatic injury in rats. Pak J Pharm Sci 2009;22:391-4.
3. Gordillo KR, Shah R, Muriel P. Oxidative stress and inflammation in hepatic diseases: current n future therapy, Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017. https://doi.org/10.1155/ 2017/3140673
4. Qureshi AA. Evaluation of the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Cinnamomum tamala leaves in rats. Saudi J Health Sci 2015;4:156-62.
5. Bezenjani SN, Pouraboli I, Afshar RM, Mohammadi G. Hepatoprotective effect of Otostegia persica boiss. shoot extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in rats. Iranian J Pharm Sci 2012;11:1235-41.
6. http://www.indiabiodiversityorg/biodiv/species/show/13965. [Last accessed on 02 Apr 2020]
7. Ravi Kumar K, Ved DK. One hundred red listed medicinal plants of conservation concern in Southern India. Bangalore: Foundation for revitalisation of local health traditions; 2000.
8. Joshi BS, Ravindranath KR, Viswanathan N. Structure and stereochemistry of attenuol, a new lignan from Knema attenuate (Wall) warb. Experientia 1978;34:422.
9. Paul S, Hwang JK, Kim HN, Jeon WK, Chung C, Han JS. Multiple biological properties of macelignan and its pharmacological implications. Arch Pharm Res 2013;36:264–72.
10. Raja HS, Suku J. Phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of Knema attenuata (Hook. F. and Thomson) warb stem bark extract. Int J Pharma Sci Res 2019;10:4238-44.
11. Raja HS. Anti-inflammatory activity of Knema attenuata (Hook. F. And Thomson) Warb ethanolic stem bark extract in albino wistar rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;12:330-4.
12. Raja HS, Suku J. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Knema attenuata stem bark extract. Indo Am J Pharm Res 2017;7:242-7.
13. Chandrashekhar VM, Ashok A Muchandi, Sarasvathi V Sudi, Seru Ganapty. Hepatoprotective activity of Stereospermum suaveolens against CCl4-induced liver damage in albino rats. Pharm Biol 2010;48:524-8.
14. Li M, Feng X, Deng Baetal DJ. Hepatoprotection of Herpetospermum caudigerum wall against CCl4-induced liver fibrosis on rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2019;229:1–14.
15. https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/iccvam/suppdocs/feddocs/oecd/oecd_gl425-508.pdf. [Last accessed on 02 Apr 2020]
16. Raj VP, Chandrashekhar RH, Vijayan P. In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective effects of the total alkaloid fraction of Hygrophila auriculata leaves. Indian J Pharmacol 2010;42:99-104.
17. Joshi BC, Prakash A, Kalia AN. Hepatoprotective potential of potent antioxidant fraction from Urtica dioica linn. (whole plant) in CCl4 challenged rats. Toxicol Rep 2015;2:1101-10.
18. Ohwaka H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95:351-8.
19. Ellman GL. Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Arch Biochem Biophys 1959;82:70-7.
20. Datta R, Bose S, Mandal SK. Evaluation of in vitro hepatic toxicity of leaves of Pterospermum Acerifolium (L.) willd. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2020;13:118-20.
21. Talib WH, Mahasneh MA. Antiproliferative activity of plant extracts used against cancer in traditional medicine. Sci Pharm 2010;78:33-45.
22. Qadrie ZLB, Rajkapoor S, Kavimani. Hepatoprotective medicinal herbs and animal models for their screening-a review. Int J Pharma Sci Res 2015;6:5006-28.
23. Hussain F, Malik A, Ayyaz U, Shafique H, Rana Z, Hussain Z. Efficient hepatoprotective activity of cranberry extract against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rat model: down-regulation of liver enzymes and strong antioxidant activity. Asian Pac J Trop 2017;10:1054-8.
24. Bouhrim M, Ouassou H, Choukri M, Mekhfi H, Ziyyat A, Legssyer A, et al. Hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia dillenii seed oil on CCl4 induced acute liver damage in rat. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2018;8:254-60.
25. Umadevi A, KUMAR PA. In vitro hepatoprotective activity of yellow leaf extracts of Thespesia Populnea against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity. Int J Curr 2019;11:21-3.
26. Aoyama K, Nakaki T. Glutathione in cellular redox homeostasis: association with the excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1). Molecules 2015;20:8742–58.
27. Shah VN, Shah MB, Bhatt PA. Hepatoprotective activity of punarnavashtak kwath, an Ayurvedic formulation, against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and on the HepG2 cell line. Pharm Biol 2011;49:408-15.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.