Development of quality indicators for pharmaceutical care performance assessment in Nigerian community pharmacies: a Delphi panel

  • Nneoma Okpalanma Nnamdi Azikiwe Univversity, Awka
  • Obinna Ekwunife Nn amdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

Abstract

Background: Pharmaceutical care is the preferred method of practice but most pharmacists still do not provide significant pharmaceutical care services. Quality indicators should be in place to guide practicing pharmacists in the performance of pharmaceutical care.


Objective: This study aimed to develop quality indicators for assessing pharmaceutical care performance in Nigerian community pharmacies using a Delphi panel.


Methods: The quality indicators were developed based on review of literature. The indicators consisted of thirty-four items in 10 core components. Delphi panel was used to achieve consensus on indicators that can be used to assess the performance of Nigerian community pharmacists with respect to pharmaceutical care practice. The Delphi panel was conducted in 3 rounds by consulting a panel of 10 experts in pharmaceutical practice.  Consensus was reached on the quality indicators with mean score >3.5, median >3.5, absolute value between the median and mode <1.00.


Results: Twenty-five items of the quality indicators met these criteria in 9 core components namely: quality management, documentation of care, communication with patients, management of clinical risk in pharmacy, dispensing and patient care, follow-up of pharmacotherapy, counseling, drug inventory and stocking and training of pharmaceutical personnel.


Conclusions: The quality indicators were developed as an assessment tool to improve the performance of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in Nigeria.

Keywords: Delphi panel, quality indicator pharmaceutical care; community pharmacy

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Dauti M, Idrizi E A, Malaj L. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacy in the Republic of Macedonia. A compared study with EU countries. European Scientific Journal.2014; 3: 1857-7881
2. Foppe van Mil JW, Schulz M, Tromp TH.F.J Dick. Pharmaceutical care, Europian developments in concepts, implementation, teaching, and research: a review. Pharm World Sci. 2004; 26; 303-311
3. Petkova V, Georgiev S T, Dinitrov Z I, Radivoeva M. Implementation of pharmaceutical care knowledge in Bulgarian community pharmacy. Pharm Education. 2006; 6(2): 107-110
4. Penna, R. P. Pharmaceutical care: Pharmacy’s mission for the 1990s. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 1889; 47, 545–547.
5. Vantamay N. Using the Delphi Technique to develop effectiveness indicators for soci marketing communication to reduce health-risk behavior among youth. Southeast Asian J Trop. Med. Public Health 2015; 46(5): 949-957
6. Barzekar G, Aziz A, Mariapan M, Ismail MH, Hosseni SM (2011). Delphi technique for generat¬ing criteria and indicators in monitoring ecotourism sustainability in northern forests of Iran: case study on Dohezar and Sehezar Watersheds. Folia Forest Pol. 2011 ; 53: 130-41.
7. Rowe G, Wright G. The Delphi technique as a forecasting tool: issues and analysis. Int J Forecast. 1999; 15: 353-75.
8. Chartrand M, Guenette L, Brouillete D et al. Development of quality indictors to assess oral anticoagulant management in community pharmacy for patients with atrial fibrillation. Journal of Managed Care and Specialty Pharmacy. 2018; 24(4): 357-36
9. Fujita K, Moles R.J, Timothy F Chen. Quality indicators for responsible use of medicines: A systematic review. 2018; 8(7)
10. Arkaravichien W, Wongpratat A, Lertsinerdom S. Quality indicators to compare accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in Thailand. Int. J Clin. Pharm. 2016; 38(4): 899-909
11. Teichet M, Schoenmakers T, Kylstra N et al. Quality Indicators for pharmaceutical care: A comprehensive set with national scores for Dutch community pharmacies. International Journal of Clinical pharmacy.2016; 38: 870–879
12. Grey E, Harris M, Rodham K, Wenss MC. Characteristics of good quality pharmaceutical services common to community pharmacies and dispensing general practices. Int. J Pharm. Pract.2016; 24(5): 811-8
13. Bie D.J, Kijlstra N.B, Daemen B.J.G, Bouvy M.L. The development of quality indicators for community pharmacy care. BMJ. 2015; 20: 666-671
14. Schoenmakers TW, Teichert M, Braspenning J, Vanderink L, De Smet PA, Wensing M. Evaluation of quality indicators for Dutch community pharmacies using a comprehensive assessment framework. J Manag. Care Spec. Pharm. 2015; 21(2):144-52
15. Halsall D, Noyce RR, Ashcroft DM. Characterizing healthcare quality in the community pharmacy setting: insights from a focus group study. Res. Social Adm. Pharm. 2012; 3(5): 360-70
16. Winslade N, Taylor L, Shi S, Schuwairth L, Vander Vieuten C, Tomblem R (2011). Monitoring Community Pharmacists quality of care: A feasibility study of using pharmacy claims data to assess performance. BMC Health Serv. Res. 2011; 11::12
17. Trap B, Hansen EH, Trap R, Kahsay A, Simoyi T, Oteba MO, Remedios V, Everard M. A new indicator based tool for assessing and reporting on good pharmacy practice. Southern Med. Review. 2011; 3(2): 4-11
18. Benrimoj SI, Werner JB, Raffaek C, Roberts AS, Costa FA. Monitoring quality standards in the pro vision of non –prescription medicines from Australian community pharmacies: results of a national progamme. Qual. Saf. Health care. 2007; 16(5): 354-8
19. Suwaratchai P, Sithisarankul P, Sriratanban J, Chenvidhya D, Phonburee W. Utilize the modified Delphi technique to develop trauma care indicators. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008; 91: 99-
20. Eubank .B H, Mohtadi N G, Lafve M R, Wiley J P, Bois A J, Borman R S, Sheps D M. Using modified clinical consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with rotator cuff pathology. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2016; 16: 56
21. Murry J W, Hammors J O (1995). Versatile methodology for conducting qualitative research Rev High Educ; 18: 423-36

22. Dalkey N C, Helmer O (1963). An experimental ap¬plication of the Delphi method to the use of experts. Manag Sci;: 458-67

23. Hermanides HS, Hulscher MEJL, Schouten JA, Prins JM, Geerlings SE (2008) . Development of quality indicators for the antibiotic treatment of complicated urinary tract infections: a first step to measure and improve care. Clin Infect Dis.;46:703–711.

24. Campbell S, Cantrill J, Roberts D (2000). Prescribing indicators for UK general practice: Delphi consultation study. BMJ. 321(7258):425–428.

25. Morris C, Cantrill J, Hepler C, Noyce P (2002). Preventing drug-related morbidity–determining valid indicators. Int J Qual Health Care.; 14(3):183–198.

26. Morris C, Cantrill J (2003). Preventing drug-related morbidity–the development of quality indicators. J Clin Pharm Ther.; 28(4):295–305.

27. To T, Guttmann A, Lougheed M, Gershon A, Dell S, Stanbrook M, et al (2010). Evidence-based performance indicators of primary care for asthma: a modified RAND Appropriateness Method. Int J Qual Health Care.; 22(6):476–485.

28. Uphoff E, Wennekes L, Punt C, Grol R, Wollersheim H, Hermens R, et al (2012). Development of generic quality indicators for patient-centered cancer care by using a RAND modified Delphi method. Cancer Nurs.;35(1):29–37.
29. Caughey GE, Ellett LMK, Wong TY (2014). Development of evidence-based Australian medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations: a modified RAND appropriateness method. BMJ. 4:e004625

30. Martirosyan L, Braspenning J, Denig P, de Grauw W, Bouma M, Storms F, et al (2008) Prescribing quality indicators of type 2 diabetes mellitus ambulatory care. Qual Saf Health Care. 17(5):318–323

31. Yoon D, Park I, Schuemie M, Park M, Kim J, Park R (2013). A quantitative method for assessment of prescribing patterns using electronic health records. PLoS One. 10(8):

32. Zinn J, Zalokowski A (1999). The use of Delphi panel for consensus development on indicator of lab performance. CLM 13(6): 425-428

33. Boulkedid R, Abdoul H, Loustan M, Sibony O, Alberti Care (2011). Using and reporting the Delphi method for selecting Healthcare Quality Indicators: A systematic Review. PLOS ONE 6(6): e20476

34. Roland M, Holden J, Campbell S (1998. Quality assessment for general practice supporting clinical governance in primary care groups. Manchester National primary care research and development centre

35. Bettie E, Mackway-Jones K (2004). A Delphi study to to identify performance indicators for emergency medicine. Emerg. Med. J 21: 47-50
Statistics
24 Views | Downloads
How to Cite
Okpalanma, N., and O. Ekwunife. “Development of Quality Indicators for Pharmaceutical Care Performance Assessment in Nigerian Community Pharmacies: A Delphi Panel”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 13, no. 2, Jan. 2021, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/39179.
Section
Original Article(s)