Development of quality indicators for pharmaceutical care performance assessment in Nigerian community pharmacies: a Delphi panel

  • Nneoma Okpalanma Nnamdi Azikiwe Univversity, Awka
  • Obinna Ekwunife Nn amdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria


Background: Pharmaceutical care is the preferred method of practice but most pharmacists still do not provide significant pharmaceutical care services. Quality indicators should be in place to guide practicing pharmacists in the performance of pharmaceutical care.

Objective: This study aimed to develop quality indicators for assessing pharmaceutical care performance in Nigerian community pharmacies using a Delphi panel.

Methods: The quality indicators were developed based on review of literature. The indicators consisted of thirty-four items in 10 core components. Delphi panel was used to achieve consensus on indicators that can be used to assess the performance of Nigerian community pharmacists with respect to pharmaceutical care practice. The Delphi panel was conducted in 3 rounds by consulting a panel of 10 experts in pharmaceutical practice.  Consensus was reached on the quality indicators with mean score >3.5, median >3.5, absolute value between the median and mode <1.00.

Results: Twenty-five items of the quality indicators met these criteria in 9 core components namely: quality management, documentation of care, communication with patients, management of clinical risk in pharmacy, dispensing and patient care, follow-up of pharmacotherapy, counseling, drug inventory and stocking and training of pharmaceutical personnel.

Conclusions: The quality indicators were developed as an assessment tool to improve the performance of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in Nigeria.

Keywords: Delphi panel, quality indicator pharmaceutical care; community pharmacy


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Okpalanma, N., and O. Ekwunife. “Development of Quality Indicators for Pharmaceutical Care Performance Assessment in Nigerian Community Pharmacies: A Delphi Panel”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 13, no. 2, Jan. 2021,
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