ANTIDERMATOPHYTIC AND PROTEASE INHIBITING ACTIVITIES OF THE RHIZOME OF ZINGIBER ZERUMBET (L) ROSCOE EX J. E: SMITH FROM CENTRAL KERALA, INDIA
Keywords:Epidermophyton, Microsporum, Trichophyton, Trypsin inhibiting activity
Objective: Determination of Antidermatophytic and protease inhibiting activities of the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet from central Kerala, India.
Methods: Dried and powdered rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet were extracted with methanol at room temperature. Antidermatophytic activity of the extract was tested against Epidermophyton floccosum var. nigricans, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum by determining the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the extract were determined according to CLSI methodâ€“M38-A2 with slight modification. Protease inhibiting activity was analysed using trypsin as the enzyme.
Results: The methanolic extract of the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet exhibited 100 percentage inhibition of mycelial growth of tested dermatophytes at the concentration 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect was statistically significant with P=0.000. MIC of the extract was 0.5 mg/ml against all organisms while MFC were 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 0.8 mg/ml respectively for E. floccosum, M. canis, M. gypseum and T. rubrum. The percentage inhibition of trypsin activity by 100Âµg, 500Âµg and 1000Âµg of the extract were 33.12Â±0.95, 56.34Â±2.82 and 72.93Â±1.16 respectively.
Conclusion: The rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet exhibited anti dermatophytic as well as trypsin inhibiting activity. The material is a traditionally used ingredient in food preparations. Hence it can be used for the development of less toxic medicaments for dermatophytoses and inflammatory diseases in traditional as well as modern medicine.
Baby S, Dan M, Thaha ARM, Johnson AJ, Kurup R, Balakrishnapillai P, et al. High content of zerumbone in volatile oils of Zingiber zerumbet from southern india and malaysia. Flavour Fragrance J 2009;24:301-8.
Bhuiyan MN, Chowdhury JU, Begum J. Chemical investigation of the leaf and rhizome essential oils of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith from Bangladesh. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2009;4:9-12.
Zakaria ZA, Mohamad AS, Chear CT, Wong YY, Israf DA, Sulaiman MR. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Zingiber zerumbet methanol extract in experimental model systems. Med Principles Practice 2010;19:287â€“94.
Yob NJ, Jofrry SM, Affandi MM, Teh LK, Salleh MZ, Zakaria ZA. Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith: a review of its ethnomedicinal, Chemical, and pharmacological uses. Evidence Based Complementary Altern Med 2011; doi.org/10.1155/2011/543216. [Epub 2011 Mar 22]
Somchit MN, Nur Shukriyah MH. Anti-inflammatory property of ethanol and water extracts of Zingiber zerumbet. Indian J Pharmacol 2003;35:181-2.
Tewtrakul S, Subhadhirasakul S. Anti-allergic activity of some selected plants in the Zingiberaceae family. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;109:535-8.
Huang GC, Chien TY, Chen LG, Wang CC. Antitumor effects of zerumbone from Zingiber zerumbet in P-388D1 cells in vitro and in vivo. Planta Med 2005;71:219-24.
Jantan I, Rafi AA, Jalil J. Platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor binding antagonist activity of Malaysian medicinal plants. Phytomedicine 2005;12:88-92.
Somchit MN, Shukriyah MHN, Bustamam AA, Zuraini A. Anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Zingiber zerumbet. Int J Pharmacol 2005;1:277â€“80.
Rashid RA, Lope Pihie AH. The antiproliferative effects of Zingiber zerumbet extracts and fractions on the growth of human breast carcinoma cell lines. Malaysian J Pharm Sci 2005;3:45-52.
Weitzman I, Summerbell RC. The dermatophytes. Clin Microbiol Rev 1995;8:240-59.
Rippon JW. Medical mycologyâ€“the pathogenic fungi and the pathogenic actinomycetes. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company; 1982.
Vila R, Freixa B, Canigueral. Antifungal compounds from plants. In: MuÃ±oz-Torrer D, CortÃ©s A, MariÃ±o ELe. ed(s). Recent Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences III. Kerala: Transworld Research Network; 2013.
Sasidharan S, Latha LY, Ping KY, Jothy Lachumy S. Screening methods in the study of fungicidal property of medicinal plants. In: Fungicides for Plant and Animal Diseases, Dharumadurai Dhanasekaran. Ed; 2012. p. 107-18. Available from: URL: http://www.intechopen.com/download/pdf/26025 [Last accessed on 1 Jun 2014]
Hoog GS, Guarro J, Gene J, Figueras MJ. Atlas of clinical fungi. 2nd ed. The Netherlands: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures and Spain: Universitat Rovira virgili; 2000.
Yadav RS, Kumar S, Dikshit A. Antifungal properties of essential oil of Mentha spicata L. var. MSS-5. Indian J Crop Sci 2006;1:197-200.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi; Approved Standardâ€”Second Edition. CLSI document M38-A2 (ISBN1-56238-668-9). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA; 2008.
Alam MB, Hossain MS, Haque ME. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the leaf extract of Brassica nigra. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2011;2:303-10.
Evans WC, Trease GE. Trease and evans pharmacognosy. China: W.B. Saunders; 2002.
Pinto E, Vale-Silva L, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L. Antifungal activity of clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species. J Med Microbiol 2009;58:1454-62.
Shoba FG, Babu VA, Parimala M, Sathya J. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity of moringa oleifera and momordica charantia seeds. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2014;5:1988-93.
Jantan IB, Yasssin MSM, Chin CB, Chen LL, Sim NL. Antifungal activity of the essential oils of nine Zingiberaceae species. Pharm Biol 2003;41:392-7.
Phongpaichit S, Subhadhirasakul S, Wattanapiromsakul C. Antifungal activities of extracts from thai medicinal plants against opportunistic fungal pathogens associated with AIDS patients. Mycoses 2005;48:333-8.
Alm AK, Gagnemo-Persson R, Sorsa T, Sundelin J. Extrapancreatic trypsin-2 cleaves proteinase-acrivated receptor-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000;275:77-83.
Cottrell GS, Amadesi S, Schmidlin F, Bunnett N. Protease-activated receptor 2: activation, signalling and function. Biochem Soc Trans 2003;31:1191-7.
Heitman J, Filler S, Edwards JE, Mitchell AP. Molecular principles of fungal pathogenesis. Washington DC: ASM press; 2006.
Andoh T, Takayama Y, Yamakoshi T, Lee JB, Sano A, Shimizu T, et al. Involvement of serine protease and proteinase-activated receptor 2 dermatophyte-associated itch in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2012;343:91-6.