• Dr. Shakkeela Yusuf Erattil Ahammed Qassim University


Aim: The present study aims to investigate the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activity of the total ethanolic extract of the hababuk stage of date’s fruits (PDHE), Phoenix dactylifera.

Methods: The date fruits early stage hababuk was collected authenticated, shade dried and powdered in an electrical grinder. The powdered plant part was extracted using ethanol. Qualitative phytochemical screening, were carried out by established procedures. The in vitro antioxidant potentials were performed by diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid and nitric oxide scavenging assays. The acute cytotoxicity study carried out by brine shrimp lethality assay and cell lines study using three different cell lines Lung Cancer (A549), Human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and Breast Cancer (MCF)-7 cells by MTT method.

Results: The phytochemical screening using standard procedure and showed the presence of important constituents like alkaloids, glycosides, phenolic, flavonoids, carbohydrate, proteins, amino acid, terpenoids, steroids, and saponins.  The antioxidant studies of the PDHE compared with standard showed very excellent results IC50 values for DPPH activity and nitric oxide. A good result was also shown by ABTS when compared with that of standard. The brine shrimp lethality assay is considered a useful tool for preliminary assessment of toxicity. The extract showed excellent LC50 value which correlates with cytotoxicity studies previously established. The MTT study results using the three different cell lines compared with the standard doxorubicin, promising results obtained for HeLa cell lines when compared with other cell lines.

Conclusion: The observed significant free radical scavenging activity along with in vitro cytotoxic potentials results suggests the hababuk stage of the plant part may be a potential source for the identification of various pharmacologically active phytochemicals capable of controlling oxidative stress and anticancer potentials.

Keywords: Date fruit, ethanolic extract, antioxidant, Hababuk, brine shrimp, Phytochemical screening


Download data is not yet available.


1. Raina H, Soni G, Jauhari N, Sharma N, Bharadvaja N. Phytochemical importance of medicinal plants as potential sources of anticancer agents. Vol. 38, Turkish Journal of Botany. 2014. p. 1027–35.
2. Shakya AK. Medicinal plants?: Future source of new drugs. Int J Herb Med. 2016;4(4):59–64.
3. Pradeep A, Dinesh M, Govindraj A, Vinothkumar D, Ramesh Babu N. Phytochemical analysis of some important medicinal plants. Int J Biol Pharm Res. 2014;5(1):48–50.
4. Al-Mamary M, Al-Habori M, Al-Zubairi AS. The in vitro antioxidant activity of different types of palm dates (Phoenix dactylifera) syrups. Arab J Chem [Internet]. 2014;7(6):964–71. Available from:
5. Ali A, Waly M, Essa MM, Devarajan S. Nutritional and Medicinal Value of Date Fruit. Dates Prod Process food Med values. 2014;(November 2018):361–71.
6. Abdul-Hamid NA, Mustaffer NH, Maulidiani M, Mediani A, Ismail IS, Tham CL, et al. Quality evaluation of the physical properties, phytochemicals, biological activities and proximate analysis of nine Saudi date palm fruit varieties. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci [Internet]. 2020;19(2):151–60. Available from:
7. Hadrami A El, Al-khayri JM. Socioeconomic and traditional importance of date palm. Emirates Journal Food Agric. 2012;24(5):371–85.
8. Barzin G, Entezari M, Hashemi M, Hajiali S, Ghafoori M, Gholami M. Survey of Antimutagenicity and Anticancer effect of Phoenix dactylifera pollen grains. Adv Environ Biol. 2011;5(12):3716–8.
9. Sarker SD, Nahar L. Chemistry for Pharmacy Students: General, Organic, and Natural Product Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons Ltd T, editor. Chemistry for Pharmacy Students: General, Organic, and Natural Product Chemistry. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data; 2013. 1–383 p.
10. C.K. Kokate PSBG. Pharmacognosy. 45th ed. Nirali Prakashan; 2010. 108–109 p.
11. Yusuf, Shakkeela KKS. GC-MS Analysis of Oil Isolated and Antioxidant Activity of Shorea Robusta Oleoresin. Am J Pharm Heal Res. 2015;3(11):1–8.
12. Pappachen LK, Chacko A. In-Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Determination of Total Phenolic , Flavonoid Contents of Peperomia Pellucida Linn. Am J Pharm Heal Res. 2013;1(7):99–101.
13. Noreen H, Semmar N, Farman M, McCullagh JSO. Measurement of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of aerial parts of medicinal plant Coronopus didymus. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2017;10(8):792–801.
14. Sp D, Raj BA, Muruganantham N, Tk P, Ps R. Screening of Wrightia tinctoria leaves for Anti psoriatic activity Screening of Wrightia tinctoria leaves for Anti psoriatic activity. J drugs Med. 2012;4(1):73–8.
15. Sreejamole KL, Greeshma PM. Antioxidant and brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of ethanolic extract of red alga Cracilaria corticata (J. Agardh) J. Agardh. Indian J Nat Prod Resour. 2013;4(3):233–7.
16. Arung ET, Wicaksono BD, Handoko YA, Kusuma IW, Yulia D, Sandra F. Anti-cancer properties of diethylether extract of wood from Sukun (Artocarpus altilis) in human breast cancer (T47D) cells. Trop J Pharm Res. 2009;8(4):317–24.
17. Zarei O, Yaghoobi MM. Cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects of Rosa beggeriana Schrenk extracts on human liver and breast cancer cells. Avicenna J phytomedicine. 2019;9(4):386–95.
18. Khan F, Ahmed F, Pushparaj PN, Abuzenadah A. Ajwa Date ( Phoenix dactylifera L .) Extract Inhibits Human Breast Adenocarcinoma ( MCF7 ) Cells In Vitro by Inducing Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest. PLoS One. 2016;11(7):1–17.
19. Umesh Khandekar, Anil Bobade RG. Evaluation of antioxidant activity, in vitro atimicrobial activity andphytoconstituents of Schleichera oleosa (lour.) oken. Int J Biol Pharm Res. 2015;6(2):137–43.
20. S.D. Sanja, Sheth NR, Patel NK, Patel D, Patel B. Characterization and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Portulaca Oleracea. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2009;1(1):74–84.
21. Baskar R, Rajeswari V, Kumar TS. In vitro antioxidant studies in leaves of annona species. Indian J Exp Biol. 2007;45(5):480–5.
22. Chanda S, Dave R. In vitro models for antioxidant activity evaluation and some medicinal plants possessing antioxidant properties?: An overview. African J Microbiol Res [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2016 Dec 9];3(13):981–96. Available from:
23. Ck R, Kl R, Ks J, Joyce GS. Comparative evaluation of antioxidant property in methanol extracts of some common vegetables of India. Sch Res Libr. 2011;2(2):86–94.
24. Krishnaraju A V, Rao TVN, Sundararaju D, Vanisree M. Assessment of Bioactivity of Indian Medicinal Plants Using Brine Shrimp ( Artemia salina ) Lethality Assay †. Int J Appl Sci Eng. 2005;3(2):125–34.
25. Sharma KR, Kalauni SK. In Vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Methanol Extracts of Some Selected Medicinal Plants of Nepal. 2015;2(1):1–5.
26. Sharma B, Dhamija I, Kumar S, Chaudhary H. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antitumor activity of methanolic extract of Argyreia nervosa leaves on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. 2015;399–408.
13 Views | Downloads
How to Cite
Erattil Ahammed, D. S. Y. “NOVEL FINDINGS OF PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA, DATES FRUIT EARLY-STAGE HABABUK FOR PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 13, no. 5, Mar. 2021, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2021v13i5.39469.
Original Article(s)