• SRILAXMI CHIPPA SVKM’s Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (West), Mumbai 400056, Maharashtra, India
  • VASANTI SUVARNA Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, SVKM’s Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (West), Mumbai 400056, Maharashtra, India


Nanotechnology is having a high impact on the development of a novel class of biosensors called nanobiosensors. This technology has utilized some extremely exciting elements for sensing phenomenon improvement. The utilization of nano-materials, nano-rods, nano-particles, nano-tubes have aided rapid, reliable reproducibility and its detection in a much better way. The unique properties of nanobiosensors and its varied applications have influenced biosensing research. Since longtime, nanobiosensors have been utilized worldwide for the diagnosis of diseases co-related with molecular detection of biomarkers. This paper highlights the use of such nanobiosensors for the detection of the virus, infections, fungal pathogens, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) related diseases such as Cardiovascular diseases (CDVs), Renal Arthritis (RA) through different techniques including electrochemical biosensing, optical biosensing, point of care-diagnostics etc.

Keywords: Nanobiosensor, Disease diagnosis, Voltammetry, Amperometry, Point of care testing


Download data is not yet available.


1. Younis S. Nanosensors for the detection of viruses. Nanosensors for Smart Cities INC; 2020. p. 372-38.
2. Malik P. Nanobiosensors: Concepts and variations. ISRN Nanomater; 2013. p. 1–9.
3. Awanish Kumar, Kumar Suranjit Prasad. Biogenic selenium nanoparticles for their therapeutic application. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;13:4–9.
4. Karthikeyan S, Laxmi Deepak Bhatlu M, Sukanya K, Jayan N. Nanovaccination: evolution and review. J Crit Rev 2020;7:971–5.
5. Prasad S. Nanobiosensors: the future for diagnosis of disease? Nanobiosensors Dis Diagnosis 2014;3:1-10.
6. Hammond JL, Formisano N, Estrela P, Carrara S, Tkac J. Electrochemical biosensors and nanobiosensors. Essays Biochem 2016;60:69–80.
7. Lin D, Harris KD, Chan NWC, Jemere AB. Nanostructured indium tin oxide electrodes immobilized with toll-like receptor proteins for label-free electrochemical detection of pathogen markers. Sensors Actuators B Chem 2018;257:324–30.
8. Bhatnagar I, Mahato K, Ealla KKR, Asthana A, Chandra P. Chitosan stabilized gold nanoparticle mediated self-assembled gliP nanobiosensor for diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis. Int J Biol Macromol 2018;110:449–56.
9. Tripathy S, Krishna Vanjari SR, Singh V, Swaminathan S, Singh SG. Electrospun manganese (III) oxide nanofiber based electrochemical DNA-nanobiosensor for zeptomolar detection of dengue consensus primer. Biosens Bioelectron 2017;90:378–87.
10. Yoo MS. Development of electrochemical biosensor for detection of pathogenic microorganism in Asian dust events. Chemosphere 2017;175:269–74.
11. Brince Paul K. A highly sensitive self assembled monolayer modified copper doped zinc oxide nanofiber interface for detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein-2: targeted towards rapid, early diagnosis of malaria. Biosens Bioelectron 2016;80:39-46.
12. Mobed A. Immobilization of ssDNA on the surface of silver nanoparticles-graphene quantum dots modified by gold nanoparticles towards biosensing of microorganism. Microchem J 2020;152:104-286.
13. Nguyen BTT. Membrane-based electrochemical nanobiosensor for the detection of virus. Anal Chem 2009;81:7226–34.
14. Rai V. Ultrasensitive cDNA detection of dengue virus RNA using electrochemical nanoporous membrane-based biosensor. PLoS One 2012;7:1–7.
15. Huang Y, Xu J, Liu J, Wang X, Chen B. Disease-related detection with electrochemical biosensors: a review. Sensors (Switzerland) 2017;17:1–30.
16. Sharifi M. Cancer diagnosis using nanomaterials based electrochemical nanobiosensors. Biosens Bioelectron 2019;126:773–84.
17. Perumal V, Hashim U. Advances in biosensors: principle, architecture and applications. J Appl Biomed 2014;12:1–15.
18. Van den Hurk R, Evoy S. A review of membrane-based biosensors for pathogen detection. Sensors (Switzerland) 2015;15:14045–78.
19. Ghorbani F, Abbaszadeh H, Dolatabadi JEN, Aghebati Maleki L, Yousefi M. Application of various optical and electrochemical aptasensors for detection of human prostate specific antigen: a review. Biosens Bioelectron 2019;142:111484.
20. Shojaei TR. Detection of citrus tristeza virus by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensor. Spectrochim Acta Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2016;169:216–22.
21. Sabzehparvar F, Rahmani Cherati T, Mohsenifar A, Roodbar Shojaei T, Tabatabaei M. Immobilization of gold nanoparticles with rhodamine to enhance the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between quantum dots and rhodamine; new method for downstream sensing of infectious bursal disease virus. Spectrochim Acta Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2019;212:173–9.
22. Shamsipur M. A highly sensitive quantum dots-DNA nanobiosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer for rapid detection of nanomolar amounts of human papillomavirus 18. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2017;136:140–7.
23. Xu L. In-field detection of multiple pathogenic bacteria in food products using a portable fluorescent biosensing system. Food Control 2017;75:21–8.
24. Takemura K. Versatility of a localized surface plasmon resonance-based gold nanoparticle-alloyed quantum dot nanobiosensor for immunofluorescence detection of viruses. Biosens Bioelectron 2017;89:998-1005.
25. Adegoke O, Seo MW, Kato T, Kawahito S, Park EY. An ultrasensitive SiO2-encapsulated alloyed CdZnSeS quantum dot-molecular beacon nanobiosensor for norovirus. Biosens Bioelectron 2016;86:135–42.
26. Shokri E. Virus-directed synthesis of emitting copper nanoclusters as an approach to simple tracer preparation for the detection of Citrus Tristeza Virus through the fluorescence anisotropy immunoassay. Sensors Actuators B Chem 2020;321:128-634.
27. Kaminska A. Detection of hepatitis B virus antigen from human blood: SERS immunoassay in a microfluidic system. Biosens Bioelectron 2015;66:461-7.
28. Kaarj K, Akarapipad P, Yoon JY. Simpler, faster, and sensitive zika virus assay using smartphone detection of loop-mediated isothermal amplification on paper microfluidic chips. Sci Rep 2018;8:1–11.
29. Azzazy HME, Mansour MMH, Samir TM, Franco R. Gold nanoparticles in the clinical laboratory: principles of preparation and applications. Clin Chem Lab Med 2012;50:193–209.
30. Razmi A. Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of tomato yellow leaf curl virus. J Virol Methods 2019;267:1–7.
31. Wang L. Colorimetric detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes. J Virol Methods 2017;243:113–9.
32. Shawky SM, Bald D, Azzazy HME. Direct detection of unamplified hepatitis C virus RNA using unmodified gold nanoparticles. Clin Biochem 2010;43:1163–8.
33. Baetsen Young AM. Direct colorimetric detection of unamplified pathogen DNA by dextrin-capped gold nanoparticles. Biosens Bioelectron 2018;101:29-36.
34. Kaushal S. Glycoconjugates coated gold nanorods based novel biosensor for optical detection and photothermal ablation of food borne bacteria. Sensors Actuators B Chem 2019;289:207-15.
35. Ming Ju Chen, Kreuter JYTK. Nanoparticles and microparticles for drug and vaccine delivery. J Anat 1996;189:503–5.
36. Boltovets PM. Detection of plant viruses using a surface plasmon resonance via complexing with specific antibodies. J Virol Methods 2004;121:101–6.
37. Maldonado J, Gonzalez Guerrero AB, Dominguez C, Lechuga LM. Label-free bimodal waveguide immunosensor for rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients. Biosens Bioelectron 2016;85:310–6.
38. Chiu DT. Small but perfectly formed? successes, challenges, and opportunities for microfluidics in the chemical and biological sciences. Chem 2017;2:201–23.
39. Song J. Two-stage isothermal enzymatic amplification for concurrent multiplex molecular detection. Clin Chem 2017;63:714–22.
40. Huang G. A rapid, low-cost, and microfluidic chip-based system for parallel identification of multiple pathogens related to clinical pneumonia. Sci Rep 2017;7:1–10.
41. Dao TNT. Rapid and sensitive detection of salmonella based on microfluidic enrichment with a label-free nanobiosensing platform. Sensors Actuators B Chem 2018;262:588-94.
42. Martinez AW, Phillips ST, Whitesides GM. Diagnostics for the developing world micro?uidic. Anal Chem 2010;82:3-10.
43. Zhang P, Lu H, Chen J, Han H, Ma W. Simple and sensitive detection of HBsAg by using a quantum dots nanobeads based dot-blot immunoassay. Theranostics 2014;4:307–15.
44. Darbha GK, Rai US, Singh AK, Ray PC. Gold-nanorod-based sensing of sequence specific HIV-1 virus DNA by using hyper-rayleigh scattering spectroscopy. Chem A Eur J 2008;14:3896-903.
45. Griffin J. Sequence-specific HCV RNA quantification using the size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of gold nanoparticles. Small 2009;5:839-45.
46. Chung HJ, Castro CM, Im H, Lee H, Weissleder R. A magneto-DNA nanoparticle system for target specific bacterial identification. Nat Nanotechnol 2013;8:369–75.
47. Lee H, Sun E, Ham D, Weissleder R. Chip-NMR biosensor for detection and molecular analysis of cells. Nat Med 2008;14:869–74.
48. Liong M. Magnetic barcode assay for genetic detection of pathogens. Nat Commun 2013;4:1752–9.
49. Cihalova K. Antibody-free detection of infectious bacteria using quantum dots-based barcode assay. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2017;134:325–32.
50. Inci F. Nanoplasmonic quantitative detection of intact viruses from unprocessed whole blood. ACS Nano 2013;7:4733-45.
51. Kosaka PM, Pini V, Calleja M, Tamayo J. Ultrasensitive detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen by a hybrid nanomechanical-optoplasmonic platform with potential for detecting HIV-1 at first week after infection. PLoS One 2017;12:1–13.
52. Islam S. A smart nanosensor for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus and associated cardiovascular and arthritis diseases using functionalized graphene-based transistors. Biosens Bioelectron 2019;126:792–9.
53. Ng E, Yao C, Shultz TO, Ross Howe S, Wang SX. Magneto-nanosensor smartphone platform for the detection of HIV and leukocytosis at point-of-care. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med 2019;16:10–9.
54. Sharifi M. Rapid diagnostics of coronavirus disease 2019 in early stages using nanobiosensors: challenges and opportunities. Talanta 2021;223:121-704.
198 Views | 286 Downloads
How to Cite
CHIPPA, S., and V. SUVARNA. “NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR DETECTION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY VIRUSES-CURRENT OVERVIEW”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 13, no. 4, Apr. 2021, pp. 1-7, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2021v13i4.40359.
Review Article(s)