THE IMPACT OF ANTIMICROBIAL STEWARDSHIP ON THE PATTERNS OF ANTIBIOTICS’ PRESCRIPTION AND CLINICAL OUTCOMES IN THE MEDICAL WARD OF A MALAYSIAN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Objective: To evaluate the impact of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) on antibiotic prescribing patterns and certain clinical outcomes, the length of stay (LOS) and the re-admission rate (RR) of the patients treated within the medical ward of a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia.
Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted retrospectively. The prescriptions of the AMS included alert antibiotics (AA) such as cefepime, ceftazidime, colistin (polymyxin E), imipenem-cilastatin, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and vancomycin were reviewed for the period of 24 mo before (May, 2012–April, 2014) and after (May, 2014–April, 2016) the AMS implementation for the patients who were treated within the medical ward of a Malaysian tertiary care hospital. Patterns of antibiotics prescribed were determined descriptively. The impact of the AMS on the length of stay (LOS) and readmission rate (RR) was determined by the interrupted time series (ITS) comparative analysis of the pre-and post-AMS segments segregated by the point of onset (May, 2014) of the AMS program. Data analysis was performed through autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) Winter Additive model and the Games-Howell non-parametric post hoc test by using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).
Results: A total of 1716 prescriptions of the AA included for the AMS program showed that cefepime (623, 36.3%) and piperacillin-tazobactam (424, 24.7%) were the most prescribed antibiotics from May 2012 to April 2016. A 23.6% drop in the number of the AA prescriptions was observed during the 24-month post-AMS period. The LOS of the patients using any of the AA showed a post-AMS decline by 3.5 d. The patients’ LOS showed an average reduction of 0.12 (95% CI, 0.05–0.19, P=0.001) with the level and slope change of 0.18 (95% CI, 0.04–0.32, P=0.02) and 0.074 (95% CI, 0.02–0.12, P=0.002), respectively. Similarly, the percent RR reduced from 20.0 to 9.85 during the 24-month post-AMS period. The observed post-AMS mean monthly reduction of the RR for the patients using any AA was 0.38 (95% CI, 0.23–0.53, P<0.001) with the level and slope change of 0.33 (95% CI, 0.14–0.51, P=0.02) and 0.37 (95% CI, 0.16–0.58, P=0.001), respectively.
Conclusion: The AMS program of a Malaysian tertiary care hospital was a coordinated set of interventions implemented by the AMS team of the hospital that comprised of the infectious diseases (ID) physician, clinical pharmacists and microbiologist. The successful implementation of the AMS program from May, 2014 to April, 2016 within the medical ward resulted in the drop of the number of AA prescriptions that sequentially resulted in the significant (P<0.05) post-AMS reduction of the LOS and the RR.
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