• BLESSING ONYINYE UKOHA-KALU University of Nigeria Nsukka
  • Maxwell Ogochukwu Adibe
  • Maxwell Ogochukwu Adibe
  • Chinwe Victoria Ukwe


Background: self management in terms of adherence to medications, and modification of lifestyle behaviours as major factors that contribute to the poor control of blood pressure.
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a pharmacist-led intervention on self management practices among hypertensive/diabetic patients receiving care in a Nigeria tertiary hospital.
Methods: The study adopted a prospective, longitudinal, single blind randomised controlled trial to implement a pharmacist-led Educational intervention on Hypertension management among patients in Federal medical centre Lokoja, Kogi State. All the patients who met the eligibility criteria and gave their written consent to participate in the study were recruited into the study randomised in the intervention group (IG) and Control (CG). Data was collected using H-SCALE questionnaire. The retrieved questionnaires were first coded into Microsoft Excel (2014) for cleaning of errors, after which the data was exported into the Statistical Product and Services Solutions (SPSS for windows, Version 16.0. SPSS Inc. 2007.Chicago, USA) software. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages and mean scores were used to summarise the data. All responses were first presented as frequencies and percentages. Chi-square was used to determine the correlation between socio-demographics and patients’ clinical characteristics. Independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test were used to compare differences between and within groups.
Results: At baseline, more patients in the control group were adherent to their medications 16 (11.5) and had low salt diets 47 (33.8) than patients in the intervention group. However, more patients in the intervention group were non-smokers 127 (88.8) and engaged more in physical activity 38 (26.6) than patients in the control group. More of the patients in the control group were adherent to weight management practices 38 (27.3) than patients in the intervention group 36 (25.2). All the patients in both study group reported to have taken alcohol in the past seven days. it can be seen that the intervention group at endpoint differed from the control group at baseline in adherence to medication, physical activity, reducing alcohol consumption and smoking cessation. it can be observed that the baseline intervention group differed from the endpoint in medication adherence t= - 26.045, p < 0.001; physical activity t= -15.081, p< 0.001; weight management practices t= -5.479, p< 0.001 and alcohol consumption t= -11.550, p< 0.001
Conclusion: A pharmacist led educational intervention improved patients adherence to their medications, physical activity and weight management practices.

Keywords: Hypertension, self management practices, blood pressure control


Download data is not yet available.


Berlin, I., A. Cournot, P. Renout, J. Duchier, and M. Safar. 1990. “Peripheral Haemodynamic Effects of Smoking in Habitual Smokers: A Methodological Study.” European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 38(1):57–60.
Black, J. .. and J. .. Hawks. 2005. “Medical-Surgical Nursing.” in Clinical management for positive outcomes. St. louis, Mo: Elsevier Saunders.
Cavusoglu, Y., B. Timurralp, T. Us, Y. Akgun, G. Kudaiberdieva, B. Gorenek, A. Unalir, O. Goktekin, and N. Ata. 2004. “Cigarette Smoking Increases Plasma Concentrations of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.” Angiology 55(4):397–402.
Dickinson, H. O., J. M. Mason, D. J. Nicolson, and F. Campbell. 2006. “Lifestyle Interventions to Reduce Raised Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review of Randomized Control Trials.” Journal of Hypertension 24:216–33.
Dickinson, H. O., J. M. Mason, D. J. Nicolson, F. Campbell, F. R. Beyer, and J. V. Cook. 2006. “Lifestyle Interventions to Reduce Raised Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Journal of Hypertension 24:215–33.
Fagard, R. H. 2011. “Exercise Therapy in Hypertensive Cardiovascular Disease.” Progressive Cardiovascular Disease 53:404–11.
Graudal, N. A., T. Hubeck-Graudal, and G. Jurgens. 2011. “Effects of Low Sodium Diet versus High Sodium Diet on Blood Pressure, Renin, Aldosterone, Catecholamines, Cholesterol, and Triglyceride.” Cochrane Database Systematic Review 11:CD004022.
Halperin, R. O., J. M. Gaziano, and H. D. Sesso. 2008. “Smoking and the Risk of Incident Hypertension in Midle-Aged and Older Men.” American Journal of Hypertension 21(2):148–52.
He, F. J. and G. A. MacGregor. 2003. “How Far Should Salt Intake Be Reduced?” Hypertension 42:1093–99.
Li, G., H. Wang, and K. Wang. 2017. “The Association between Smoking and Blood Preesure in Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.” BMC Public Health 17:797.
Ogah, O. S., I. Okpechi, I. I. Chukwuonye, J. O. Akinyemi, B. J. C. Onwubere, and A. .. Falase. 2012. “Blood Pressure, Prevalence of Hypertension and Hypertension Related Complications in Nigeria: A Review.” World Journal of Cardiology 4:327–40.
Pescatello, L. S. 2005. “Exercise and Hypertension: Recent Advances in Exercise Prescription.” Current Hypertension Repository 7:281–86.
Rossi, A., A. Dikareva, S. L. Bacon, and S. S. Daskalopoulou. 2012. “The Impact of Physical Activity on Mortality in Patients with High Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review.” Journal of Hypertension 30:1277–88.
Strazzullo, P., L. D’Elia, N. B. Kandala, and F. P. Cappuccio. 2009. “Salt Intake, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.” BMJ 339:456.
Svetkey, L. P., D. W. Harsha, W. M. Vollmer, and V. J. Stevens. 2003. “A Clinical Trial of Comprehensive Lifestyle Modification for Blood Pressure Control: Rationale, Design and Baseline Characteristics.” Annals of Epidemiology 13:462–71.
Thuy, A. B., L. Blizzard, M. D. Schmidt, P. H. Luc, R. H. Granger, and T. Dwyer. 2010. “The Association between Smoking and Hypertension in a Population-Based Sample of Vietnamese Men.” Journal of Hypertension 28(2):245–50.
US Department of Health and Human Services. 2004. “The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.” National Institutes of Health.
Veronique, A. C. and A. Neil. 2013. “Exercise Training for Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis.” Journal of American Heart Association 41:44–57.
Virdis, A. 2010. “Cigarette Smoking and Hypertension.” JAMA 12:56–68.
Weber, M. A., E. L. Schiffrin, W. B. White, S. Mann, L. H. Lindholm, and J. G. Kenerson. 2014. “Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension in the Community: A Statement by the American Society of Hypertension and the International Society of Hypertension.” Journal of Clinical Hypertension 16(1):14–36.
Weir, M. R., E. W. Maibach, G. L. Bakris, and H. R. Black. 2000. “Implications of a Health Lifestyle and Medication Analysis for Improving Hypertension Control.” Archaelogy of Internal Medicine 160(4):481–90.
World Health Organisation. 2003.“Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Disease. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation.”
14 Views | Downloads
How to Cite
UKOHA-KALU, B. O., M. O. Adibe, M. O. Adibe, and C. V. Ukwe. “EFFECT OF A PHARMACIST INTERVENTION ON SELF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AMONG HYPERTENSIVE/DIABETIC PATIENTS RECEIVING CARE IN A NIGERIAN TERTIARY HOSPITAL”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 13, no. 5, Mar. 2021, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2021v13i5.40987.
Original Article(s)