PREVALENCE AND EXTENT OF AWARENESS OF DEPRESSION IN YOUTH
Keywords:Depression, Mental health, Prevalence, Awareness
Objective: Depression is a common mental disorder that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Increasing awareness about depression in youth can help in addressing the consequences of the disorder that may extend to adulthood. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors of depression among youth and to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention in increasing awareness about depression.
Methods: Pre-university and graduate students between 15 to 24 y of age were included in the study. Data was collected using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Adolescent Depression Knowledge Questionnaire, and a self-designed proforma of socio-demographic factors. An educational intervention, in the form of a video, was provided to the subjects. A post-intervention questionnaire was administered after a period of 4-6 w. Analysis and interpretation of data were completed using the Chi-square test and SPSS v22 software.
Results: The prevalence of depression in youth was found to be 29.6% using a PHQ-9 cut-off score of 10. Annual household income was found to have a statistically significant association with the prevalence of depression (*P-value: 0.036). The students’ knowledge about depression was notably improved, as observed from answers of the ADKQ, before and after the educational intervention.
Conclusion: Depression is prevalent among Indian students, and this highlights the need for screening of students and educational interventions. Providing educational interventions to students can increase their awareness and knowledge about depression.
World Health Organization. Health Topics: Depression. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/ depression#tab=tab_1 [Last accessed on 10 Feb 2021]
Grover S, Raju V, Sharma A, Shah R. Depression in children and adolescents: a review of Indian studies. Indian J Psychol Med 2019;41:216.
Bostanci M, Ozdel O, Oguzhanoglu NK, Ozdel L, Ergin A, Ergin N, et al. Depressive symptomatology among university students in Denizli, Turkey: prevalence and sociodemographic correlates. Croat Med J 2005;46:96–100.
Mohammadi MR, Alavi SS, Ahmadi N, Khaleghi A, Kamali K, Ahmadi A. The prevalence, comorbidity and socio-demographic factors of depressive disorder among Iranian children and adolescents: to identify the main predictors of depression. J Affect Disorder 2019;247:1-10.
Swartz K, Musci RJ, Beaudry MB, Heley K, Miller L, Alfes C, et al. School-based curriculum to improve depression literacy among us secondary school students: a randomized effectiveness trial. Am J Public Health 2017;107:1970-6.
Jorm AF, Korten AE, Jacomb PA, Christensen H, Rodgers B, Pollitt P. Mental health literacy: a survey of the public’s ability to recognise mental disorders and their beliefs about the effectiveness of treatment. Med J Aust 1997;166:182–6.
Qassim S, Boura F, Al-hariri Y. Public knowledge and attitude toward depression and schizophrenia: Findings from a quantitative study in UAE. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:402.
Mousse F, Morrissey H, Ball PA. Exploring university students’ perception of stress and stress management during a university health promotion day. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2019;11:93–100.
Ogorchukwu JM, Sekaran VC, Nair S, Ashok L. Mental health literacy among late adolescents in South India: what they know and what attitudes drive them. Indian J Psychol Med 2016;38:234–41.
Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW. The PHQ-9. J General Internal Med 2001;16:606–13.
Kaur S, SS Deepti, Lal Mohan. Prevalence and correlates of depression among college-going students of District Amritsar, India. Int Res J Med Sci 2014;2:5-9.
Jha KK, Singh SK, Nirala SK, Kumar C, Kumar P, Aggrawal N. Prevalence of depression among school-going adolescents in an Urban Area of Bihar, India. Indian J Psychol Med 2017;39:287-92.
Grover S, Dutt A, Avasthi A. An overview of Indian research in depression. Indian J Psychiatry 2010;52 Suppl 1:S178–88.
Piko BF, Luszczynska A, Fitzpatrick KM. Social inequalities in adolescent depression: the role of parental social support and optimism. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2012;59:474–81.
Chen L, Wang L, Qiu XH, Yang XX, Qiao ZX. Depression among Chinese University students: prevalence and socio-demographic correlates. PLoS One 2013;8:e58379.
Kb C, Av K, AS, Sb T. Prescription pattern analysis of antidepressants in psychiatric outpatient department of tertiary care hospital in India. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;143:77–9.
Balchand K, Sunderajan P. You will be on BPL list if your annual income is Rs.27,000. Hindu; 2011. Available from: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/you-will-be-on-bpl-list-if-your-annual-income-is-rs27000/article2035893.ece. [Last accessed on 10 Feb 2021]
Desai Sonalde, Amaresh Dubey, BL Joshi, Mitali Sen, Abusaleh Shariff, Reeve Vanneman. Human development in India: challenges for a society in transition. New Delhi: Oxford University Press; 2010. p. 234.
Bayram N, Bilgel N. The prevalence and socio-demographic correlations of depression, anxiety and stress among a group of university students. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2008;43:667–72.
Steptoe A, Tsuda A, Tanaka Y, Wardle J. Depressive symptoms, socio-economic background, sense of control, and cultural factors in university students from 23 countries. Int J Behav Med 2007;14:97–107.
Ovuga E, Boardman J, Wasserman D. Undergraduate student mental health at Makerere University, Uganda. World Psychiatry 2006;5:51–2.
Daniel Graeber, Daniel D Schnitzlein. "The effect of maternal education on offspring's mental health," SOEPpapers on multidisciplinary panel data research 1028, DIW berlin, the german socio-economic panel (SOEP); 2019.
Ingunn Skre, Oddegeir Friborg, Camilla Breivik. A school intervention of mental health literacy in adolescents: effects of a non-randomized cluster-controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2013;13:873.