• Velichka Andonova Medical University of Plovdiv, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 15-A Vasil Aprilov Blvd, 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
  • Plamen Zagorchev Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Plovdiv, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
  • Plamen Katsarov Medical University of Plovdiv, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 15-A Vasil Aprilov Blvd, 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
  • Margarita Kassarova Medical University of Plovdiv, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 15-A Vasil Aprilov Blvd, 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria


Objective: The objective of this study was to examine and characterize topical eye drops with indomethacin-loaded poly(vinyl acetate) nanoparticles (IMC-p(VAc)-NPs).

Methods: IMC-p(VAc)-NPswere obtained by emulsifier-free radical homopolymerization of the monomers in the presence of indomethacin in water and in an aqueous solution of Carbopol®. Thus obtained indomethacin nanocarriers-()- were included in topical ophthalmic formulations. (Hydroxypropyl)methyl cellulose was used in different concentrations to increase the viscosity of the eye drops. Rheological characteristics, the surface tension, the ocular tolerance according to In Vitro hen’s egg test–chorioallantoic membrane-, and the indomethacinrelease from the eye drops models were studied.

Results: The investigation of the rheological characteristics and the surface tension of the (hydroxypropyl)methyl cellulosesolutions showed the suitable concentrations as an excipient increasing the viscosity of the eye drops with IMC-p(VAc)-NPs. In Vitro study of the indomethacinrelease from the eye drops showed that the investigated nanocarriers had a different behavior according to the releaseddrugfrom the NPs in phosphate-phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. No signs of ocular irritation were detected within 5 min according toIn Vitrohen’s egg test–chorioallantoicmembrane -for the investigated IMC-p(VAc)-NPs, contrary to the indomethacinsubstance.

Conclusion: The obtained results prove the possibility to prepare topical eye drops with IMC-p(VAc)-NPs as a drug delivery systems and give reasons to continue the research in this direction.

Keywords: Indomethacin-loaded nanoparticles, HPMC, Carbopol coated nanoparticles, Eye drops, In Vitro HET-CAM.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Velichka Andonova, Medical University of Plovdiv, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 15-A Vasil Aprilov Blvd, 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences


1. Wilczewska AZ, Niemirowicz K, Markiewicz KH, Car H. Nanoparticles as drug delivery systems. Pharmacol Rep 2012;64(5):1020-37.
2. Sadiq AA, Abdul Rassol AA. Formulation and evaluation of silibinin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for peroral use targeting lower part of gastrointestinal tract. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(1):55-67.
3. Shaji J, Lal M. Preparation, Optimization and evaluation of transferosomal formulation for enhanced transdermal delivery of a COX-2 Inhibitor. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(1):467-77.
4. Sutradhar KB, Khatun S, Luna IP. Increasing possibilities of nanosuspension. J Nanotechnol 2013;2013:12.
5. Hyma P, Chandra A, Abbulu K. Formulation and characterization of telmisartan self microemulsifying drug delivery system. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(1):120-5.
6. De Jong WH, Borm PJ. Drug delivery and nanoparticles: applications and hazards. Int J Nanomed 2008;3(2):133-49.
7. Nagarwal RC, Kant S, Singh PN, Maiti P, Pandit JK. Polymeric nanoparticle system: A potential approach for ocular drug delivery. J Control Release 2009;136:2-13.
8. Sweetman S. Martindale: The complete drug reference. 33d Ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2007.
9. Wickstrom K. Acute bacterial conjunctivitis-benefits versus risks with antibiotic treatment. Acta Ophthalmol (Oxf) 2008;86:2-4.
10. Andonova V, Georgiev G, Toncheva V, Kassarova M. Preparation and study of poly(vinyl acetate) and poly(styrene) nanosized latex with indometacin. Pharmazie 2012;67(7):601-4.
11. Andonova V, Georgiev G, Toncheva V, Petrova N, Kassarova M. Indomethacin nanoparticles for applications in liquid ocular formulations. Folia Med 2013;55(1):76-82.
12. Andonova V, Georgiev G, Toncheva V, Kassarova M. Influence of some technological factors on the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles with indomethacin. OASR 2013;2(4):703.
13. Andonova V, Georgiev G, Toncheva V, Petrova N, Karashanova D, Penkov D, et al. Indomethacin loading and in vitro release properties from vinyl acetate homo-and co-polymer nanoparticles, coated with polyzwitterion and carbopol® shells. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(1):691-9.
14. Hibbeler RC. Mechanics of Materials. New Jersey USA: Pearson Education; 2004.
15. McClenaghan BA, Literowich W. Fundamentals of computerised data acquisition in the human performance laboratory. Sports Med 1987;4(6):425-45.
16. Mcateer E, Neil D, Barr N, Brown M, Draper S, Henderson F. Simulation software in a life sciences practical laboratory. J Comput Educ 1996;26:101-12.
17. Kittnar O, Mlcek M. Analysis of the electrical heart field. Physiol Res 2010;59(1):19-24.
18. Czajkowska-Kośnik A, Sznitowska M, Mirkowska K. Self-emulsifying oils for ocular drug delivery. II. In vitro release of indomethacin and hydrocortisone. Acta Poloniae Pharm-Drug Res 2012;69(2):309-17.
19. Tavaszi J, Budai P. The use of HET-CAM test in detecting the ocular irritation. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci 2007;72:137.
20. Appendix B3 of “ICCVAM Test Method Evaluation Report: CurrentValidation Status of In Vitro Test Methods Proposed for Identifying Eye Injury HazardPotential of Chemicals and Products”NIH Publication; 2010; Available at: http:// iccvam.niehs.nih.gov/methods/ocutox/MildMod-TMER.htm.
21. Levesque R. SPSS Programming and Data Management: A Guide for SPSS and SAS Users. 4th ed. SPSS Inc, Chicago Ill; 2007;184-9.
22. Howard CJ. Multiple comparisons procedures. Circ 2008;17:698-701.
23. Epstein AA. Solution optimization and physical properties of healthy human tears. Contact Lens Spectrum 2010;4:880-2.
24. Elder D, Crowley P. Antimicrobial Preservatives Part Two: Choosing a Preservative. American Pharmaceutical Review; 2012.
25. Kaur IP, Lal S, Rana C, Kakkar S, Singh H. Ocular preservatives: associated risks and newer options. Cutaneous Ocul Toxicol 2009;28(3):93–103.
26. Tiwari SB, Rajabi-Sianboomi AR. Colorcon Inc. Modulation of drug release from hydrophilic matrices. Pharm Tech Europe 2008;437:217-43.
27. Schoenwald R, Stewart P. Effect of particle size on ophthalmic bioavailability of dexamethasone suspensions in rabbits. J Pharm Sci 1980;69:391-4.
28. Kostova B, Kamenska E, Momekov G, Rachev D, Georgiev G, Balashev K. Synthesis and characterization of novel drug delivery nanoparticles based on polyzwitterionic copolymers. Eur Polym J 2013;49:637-45.
316 Views | 1306 Downloads
How to Cite
Andonova, V., P. Zagorchev, P. Katsarov, and M. Kassarova. “EYE DROPSWITH NANOPARTICLES AS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 7, no. 2, Dec. 2014, pp. 431-5, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/4149.
Original Article(s)