IN VITRO ANTILEISHMANIAL ACTIVITIES OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS: ARGEMONE MEXICANA, MURRAYA KOENIGII AND CINNAMOMUM TAMALA AGAINST MILTEFOSINE RESISTANT PROMASTIGOTES OF LEISHMANIA DONOVANI PARASITES
Keywords:Plant semi-purified fractions, Leishmania, Miltefosine resistant, Apoptosis, ROS
Objective: Leishmaniasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases in terms of drug development and discovery. Non-responsiveness and resistance to the drug in Leishmania species need to develop new antileishmanial potentials; herbal medicines could be the alternative one.
Methods: In the present study, semi-purified fractions were prepared from the traditionally used three medicinal plants of India: Argemone mexicana (aerial shoot), Murraya koenigii (stem), and Cinnamomum tamala (bark) by using multiple solvent systems (non-polar to polar, beginning with petroleum ether followed by n-hexane, benzene, and chloroform) and an effort was given to assess the leishmanicidal activities against Leishmania donovani miltefosine resistant HePC-R (Ld/MIL-30) promastigotes in vitro and the IC50 concentrations were estimated.
Results: The study revealed that the semi-purified fractions of A. mexicana, M. koenigii, and C. tamala have effective antileishmanial activities and the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) are 50 μg/ml, 98 μg/ml, and 200 μg/ml, respectively. At these (IC50) concentrations, these plant semi-purified fractions were found to interfere in lipid and protein biosynthesis, alter cell morphology, DNA content, mitochondrial membrane potential, generating ROS, and apoptosis in promastigotes. The semi-purified fractions were also found noticeably non-toxic towards host splenocytes.
Conclusion: These results could suggest that A. mexicana, M. koenigii, and C. tamala could carry potential novel compounds for the development of new drugs against Leishmaniasis.
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