• MONA IBRAHIM El-ASSAL Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Future University in Egypt, 11835, Cairo, Egypt https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0829-443X
  • DALIA SAMUEL Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Future University in Egypt, 11835, Cairo, Egypt https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3315-1601




Chitosan, Ionotropic gelation, Polymeric nanoparticles, Rivastigmine, Alzheimer disease


Objective: In an attempt to optimize the anti-Alzheimer effect, rivastigmine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were developed in order to target of brain through skin permeation.

Methods: Rivastigmine-loaded chitosan-tripolyphosphate nanoparticles were prepared by modified ionic gelation method using tween 80 surfactants in different batches with variable chitosan/cross-linker ratios, desirability factors were applied to choose the optimal Nanocarrier and (F15) was selected. Different rivastigmine concentrations were loaded and the highest encapsulation efficiency formulae chosen for further study and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC). Further, drug loading, Ex-vivo skin permeation of Nano-gel, and kinetic studies were carried out in addition to stability along three months under different temperature.

Results: Particle size and polydispersity index showed average 291.6±7.70 to 490.6±7.42 d. nm. and 0.333±0.04 to 0.570±0.023 respectively. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape. Drug concentrations 4% w/w showed the highest drug entrapment efficiency (89.80%) and drug loading (40.81). Ex vivo studies shows that gel formulae of rivastigmine loaded chitosan nanoparticles was not irritant to rat skin had better skin permeation than chitosan nanoparticles aqueous dispersion also capable of releasing the drug in a sustained manner, and follow kinetic diffusion model. Optimum formula F15 was physical and chemical stable.

Conclusion: The experimental results showed the suitability of chitosan nanoparticles coated with a surfactant as a potential carrier for permeation through skin and brain, providing sustained delivery of rivastigmine.


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How to Cite

El-ASSAL, M. I., and D. SAMUEL. “OPTIMIZATION OF RIVASTIGMINE CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLES FOR NEURODEGENERATIVE ALZHEIMER; IN VITRO AND EX VIVO CHARACTERIZATIONS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 14, no. 1, Jan. 2022, pp. 17-27, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2022v14i1.43145.



Original Article(s)