• Bibechana Timsina Jain University
  • Varalakshmi Kilingar Nadumane Department of Biotechnology, Center for Post-Graduate Studies, Jain University, 18/3, 9th Main, III Block, Jayanagar, Bangalore 560011 Karnataka State, India


Objective: The mango (Mangifera indica L.), is a fruit with high levels of phytochemicals and the seeds have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects. This study aims at the extraction of metabolites from mango seeds and evaluation of the antiproliferative properties on cancer cell lines.

Methods: The antiproliferative effects of the ethanol extract of mango seeds were evaluated on the cancer cell line HeLa, CHO cell lines and also on normal human lymphocytes by MTT assay. The extract was purified by TLC and characterized by LC-MS methods.

Results: The ethanol extract had significant cytotoxicity to HeLa cells and the bioactive fraction from the crude extract had antiproliferative effects with an IC50 value of<10µg/ml. Fluorescence microscopy, caspase and LDH activity assays were confirming the anticancer potential of fraction 6. This fraction had arrested the HeLa cells in G2/M phase and decrease in the percentage of cells in S phase. By LC-MS analysis, it was found to have an m/z value of 701.8 indicating it to be a novel one.

Conclusions: Here mango seeds have shown promising potential as a novel source for the isolation of a bioactive compound with anticancer activity.


Keywords: Anti-cancer, Antiproliferative, Bioactive fraction, Cytotoxic, HeLa cells, Mango seeds


Download data is not yet available.


1. Mukherjee AK, Basu S, Sarkar N. Advances in cancer therapy with plant based natural products. Curr Med Chem 2001;8:1467-86.
2. Tomatis L, Huff J, Hertz-Picciotto I, Sandler DP, Bucher J, Boffetta P, Axelson O, et al. Avoided and avoidable risks of cancer. Carcinogenesis 1997;18:97-105.
3. Chen MS, Chen D, Dou QP. Inhibition of proteasome activity by various fruits and vegetables is associated with cancer cell death. In vivo 2004;18:73-80.
4. Ferguson PJ, Kurowska E, Freeman DJ, Chambers AF, Koropatnick DJ. A flavonoid fraction from cranberry extract inhibits proliferation of human tumor cell lines. J Nutr 2004;134:1529-35.
5. Schieber A, Berardini N, Carle R. Identification of flavonol and xanthone glycosides from mango peels by high performance liquid chromatography-electroscopy ionization mass spectrometry. J Agri Food Chem 2003;51:5006-11.
6. Schieber A, Ullrich W, Carle R. Characterization of polyphenols in mango puree concentrate by HPLC with diode array and mass spectromectric detection. Innovative Food Sci Emerging Technol 2000;1:161-6.
7. Talcott ST, Moore JP, Lounds-Singleton AJ. Ripening associated phytochemical changes in mangoes (Magnifera indica) following thermal quarantine and low–temperature storage. J Food Sci 2005;270:337-41.
8. Tharanathan RN, Yashoda HM, Prabha TN. Mango (Mangifera indica L.). The king of fruits”—An overview. Food Rev Int 2006;22:95-123.
9. Ajila CM, Bhat SG, Rao PUJS. Valuable components of raw and ripe peels from two Indian mango varieties. Food Chem 2007;102:1006-11.
10. Ma X, Wu H, Liu L, Yao Q, Wang S, Zhan R, et al. Polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant properties in mango fruits. Sci Hortic 2011;129:102-7.
11. Manthey JA, Perkins-Veazie P. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, the in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.). J Agric Food Chem 2009;57:10825-30.
12. Ribeiro SMR, Barbosa LCA, Queiroz JH, Knodler A, Schieber P. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Brazilian mango (Mangifera indica L.) varieties. Food Chem 2008;110:620-6.
13. Meyers KJ, Watkins CB, Pritts MP. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of strawberries. J Agri Food Chem 2003;51:6887-92.
14. Cao YH, Cao RH. Angiogenesis inhibited by drinking tea. Nat 1999;398:381.
15. Masibo M, He Q. Mango bioactive compounds and related nutraceutical properties. Food Rev Int 2009;25:346-70.
16. Carvalho RR, Pellizzon CH, Justulin L, Felisbino SL, Vilegas W, Bruni F, et al. Effect of mangiferin on the development of periodontal disease: Involvement of lipoxin A4, anti-chemotaxic action in leukocyte rolling. Chem Biol Interact 2009;179:344-50.
17. Muruganandan S, Srinivasan K, Gupta S, PK Gupta, J Lal. Effect of mangiferin on hyperglycemia and atherogenicity in streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;97:497-501.
18. Guha S, Ghosal S, Chattopadhyay U. Antitumor, immunomodulatory and anti-HIV effect of mangiferin, a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone. Chemother 1996;42:443-51.
19. Noratto GD, Bertoldi MC, Krenek K. Anticarcinogenic effects of polyphenolics from mango (Mangiferaindica) varieties. J Agric Food Chem 2010;58:4104-12.
20. Rajendran P, Ekambaram G, Sakthisekaran D. Effect of mangiferin on benzo (a) pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in experimental Swiss albino mice. Nat Prod Res 2008;22:672-80.
21. Dar A, Faizi S, Naqvi S. Analgesic and antioxidant activity of mangiferin and its derivatives: the structure activity relationship. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28:596-600.
22. Barreto JC, Trevisan MTS, Hull WE, Erben G, de Brito ES, P fundstein B, et al. Characterization and quantitation of polyphenolic compounds in bark, kernel, leaves, and peel of mango (Mangifera indica L). J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:5599-610.
23. Prasad S, Kalra N, Shukla Y. Induction of apoptosis by lupeol and mango extract in mouse prostate and LNCaP Cells. Nutr Cancer 2008;60:120-30.
24. Saleem M, Kweon MH, Yun JM, Adhami JM, Khan N. A novel dietary triterpene Lupeol induces fast-mediated apoptotic death of androgensensitive prostate cancer cells and inhibits tumor growth in a xenograft model. Cancer Res 2005;65:11203-13.
25. Soong Y, Barlow J. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of selected fruit seeds. Food Chem 2004;88:411-7.
26. Ahmed A, Saeid D, Eman A. Egyptian mango by-product 1. Compositional quality of mango seed kernel. Food Chem 2007;103:1141-52.
27. Kobayashi M, Matsui-Yuasa I, Fukuda-Shimizu M, Mandai Y, Tabuchi M, Munakata H, et al. Effect of mango seed kernel extract on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in rats fed a high fat diet. Health 2013;5:9-15.
28. Duraipandiyan VM, Ayyanar S, Ignacimuthu S. Antimicrobial activity of some ethnomedicinal plants used by Paliyar tribe from Tamil Nadu, India: BMC Complement Altern Med 2006;6:35.
29. Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival. Application to proliferation and cytotoxic assays. J Immunol Methods 1983;16:55-63.
30. Khandelwal KR. Practical pharmacognosy, techniques and experiments, 9th ed. Nirali Prakashan, Pune; 2002. p. 149-59.
31. Cohen JJ. Apoptosis. Immunol Today 1993;14:126-30.
32. Peng ZG, Luo J, Xia LH, Chen Y, Song S. CML cell line K562 cell apoptosis induced by mangiferin. Zhongguo Shiyan Xueyexue Zazhi 2014;12:590-4.
33. Talcott S, Talcott S. Phytochemical attributes contribute to the health-promoting benefits of mangos. Final Res Report Natl Mango Board 2009;4:7.
34. Susan SP, Stephen TT, Sherry TC, Anne CM, Angela LS, Jennifer PM. Neoplastic Transformation of BALB/3T3 Cells and Cell Cycle of HL-60 Cells are Inhibited by Mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice and mango juice extracts. J Nutr 2006;136:1300-4.
35. Nithitanakool S, Pithayanukul P, Bavovada R. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Thai mango seed kernel extract. Planta Med 2009;75:1118-23.
36. Muanza DN, Euler KL, Williams L, Newman DS. Screening for antitumor and anti-HIV activities of nine medicinal plants from Zaire. Int J Pharmacol 1995;33:98-106.
1399 Views | 2667 Downloads
How to Cite
Timsina, B., and V. K. Nadumane. “MANGO SEEDS: A POTENTIAL SOURCE FOR THE ISOLATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS WITH ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 7, no. 13, Oct. 2015, pp. 89-95,