SUB-LETHAL TOXICITY OF POTASSIUM CYANIDE ON NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS): BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE
Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the influences of sublethal toxicity of potassium cyanide (KCN) exposure to Oreochromis niloticus with special reference to blood biochemistry.
Methods: Three groups of fish (25 in each group) were treated with different concentrations of 0 (control), 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L KCN for 2 weeks. The Blood samples were drawn after 2 weeks of exposure and serum biochemical analysis including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, creatinine, total protein, and albumin activities were measured.
Results: KCN exposure at both concentrations caused significant (P<0.05) elevation of AST and LDH activities and creatinine concentration as compared to the control. Indeed, ALT, ALP and glucose levels in the fish treated with 0.2 mg/L KCN were significantly higher than those levels from controls. On the other hand, the biochemical parameters including GGT, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, and albumin did not change significantly following cyanide exposure.
Conclusion: The current study has clearly indicated the alterations in some of the measured serum biochemical parameters which reflect tissue damages, especially in liver and kidney, due to chronic cyanide intoxication in Oreochromis niloticus and may be used for better understanding the pathophysiology of this toxicity and as an aid in the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning in fishes.
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